## Tag `04IX`

Chapter 18: Modules on Sites > Section 18.19: Localization of ringed sites

Definition 18.19.1. Let $(\mathcal{C}, \mathcal{O})$ be a ringed site. Let $U \in \mathop{\rm Ob}\nolimits(\mathcal{C})$.

- The ringed site $(\mathcal{C}/U, \mathcal{O}_U)$ is called the
localization of the ringed site $(\mathcal{C}, \mathcal{O})$ at the object $U$.- The morphism of ringed topoi $(j_U, j_U^\sharp) : (\mathop{\textit{Sh}}\nolimits(\mathcal{C}/U), \mathcal{O}_U) \to (\mathop{\textit{Sh}}\nolimits(\mathcal{C}), \mathcal{O})$ is called the
localization morphism.- The functor $j_{U*} : \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_U) \to \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O})$ is called the
direct image functor.- For a sheaf of $\mathcal{O}$-modules $\mathcal{F}$ on $\mathcal{C}$ the sheaf $j_U^*\mathcal{F}$ is called the
restriction of $\mathcal{F}$ to $\mathcal{C}/U$. We will sometimes denote it by $\mathcal{F}|_{\mathcal{C}/U}$ or even $\mathcal{F}|_U$. It is described by the simple rule $j_U^*(\mathcal{F})(X/U) = \mathcal{F}(X)$.- The left adjoint $j_{U!} : \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_U) \to \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O})$ of restriction is called
extension by zero. It exists and is exact by Lemmas 18.19.2 and 18.19.3.

The code snippet corresponding to this tag is a part of the file `sites-modules.tex` and is located in lines 2010–2040 (see updates for more information).

```
\begin{definition}
\label{definition-localize-ringed-site}
Let $(\mathcal{C}, \mathcal{O})$ be a ringed site.
Let $U \in \Ob(\mathcal{C})$.
\begin{enumerate}
\item The ringed site $(\mathcal{C}/U, \mathcal{O}_U)$ is called the
{\it localization of the ringed site $(\mathcal{C}, \mathcal{O})$
at the object $U$}.
\item The morphism of ringed topoi
$(j_U, j_U^\sharp) :
(\Sh(\mathcal{C}/U), \mathcal{O}_U)
\to
(\Sh(\mathcal{C}), \mathcal{O})$
is called the {\it localization morphism}.
\item The functor
$j_{U*} : \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_U) \to \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O})$
is called the {\it direct image functor}.
\item For a sheaf of $\mathcal{O}$-modules $\mathcal{F}$ on $\mathcal{C}$
the sheaf $j_U^*\mathcal{F}$ is called the
{\it restriction of $\mathcal{F}$ to $\mathcal{C}/U$}.
We will sometimes denote it by
$\mathcal{F}|_{\mathcal{C}/U}$ or even $\mathcal{F}|_U$.
It is described by the simple rule $j_U^*(\mathcal{F})(X/U) = \mathcal{F}(X)$.
\item The left adjoint
$j_{U!} : \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_U) \to \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O})$
of restriction is called {\it extension by zero}. It exists and is
exact by
Lemmas \ref{lemma-extension-by-zero} and
\ref{lemma-extension-by-zero-exact}.
\end{enumerate}
\end{definition}
```

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