## Tag `01KO`

Chapter 25: Schemes > Section 25.21: Separation axioms

Lemma 25.21.7. Let $f : X \to S$ be a morphism of schemes. The following are equivalent:

- The morphism $f$ is quasi-separated.
- For every pair of affine opens $U, V \subset X$ which map into a common affine open of $S$ the intersection $U \cap V$ is a finite union of affine opens of $X$.
- There exists an affine open covering $S = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ and for each $i$ an affine open covering $f^{-1}U_i = \bigcup_{j \in I_i} V_j$ such that for each $i$ and each pair $j, j' \in I_i$ the intersection $V_j \cap V_{j'}$ is a finite union of affine opens of $X$.

Proof.Let us prove that (3) implies (1). By Lemma 25.17.4 the covering $X \times_S X = \bigcup_i \bigcup_{j, j'} V_j \times_{U_i} V_{j'}$ is an affine open covering of $X \times_S X$. Moreover, $\Delta_{X/S}^{-1}(V_j \times_{U_i} V_{j'}) = V_j \cap V_{j'}$. Hence the implication follows from Lemma 25.19.2.The implication (1) $\Rightarrow$ (2) follows from the fact that under the hypotheses of (2) the fibre product $U \times_S V$ is an affine open of $X \times_S X$. The implication (2) $\Rightarrow$ (3) is trivial. $\square$

The code snippet corresponding to this tag is a part of the file `schemes.tex` and is located in lines 3952–3967 (see updates for more information).

```
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-characterize-quasi-separated}
Let $f : X \to S$ be a morphism of schemes.
The following are equivalent:
\begin{enumerate}
\item The morphism $f$ is quasi-separated.
\item For every pair of affine opens $U, V \subset X$
which map into a common affine open of $S$ the intersection
$U \cap V$ is a finite union of affine opens of $X$.
\item There exists an affine open covering $S = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$
and for each $i$ an affine open covering $f^{-1}U_i = \bigcup_{j \in I_i} V_j$
such that for each $i$ and each pair $j, j' \in I_i$ the
intersection $V_j \cap V_{j'}$ is a finite union of affine
opens of $X$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
Let us prove that (3) implies (1).
By Lemma \ref{lemma-affine-covering-fibre-product}
the covering $X \times_S X = \bigcup_i \bigcup_{j, j'} V_j \times_{U_i} V_{j'}$
is an affine open covering of $X \times_S X$.
Moreover, $\Delta_{X/S}^{-1}(V_j \times_{U_i} V_{j'}) = V_j \cap V_{j'}$.
Hence the implication follows from Lemma \ref{lemma-quasi-compact-affine}.
\medskip\noindent
The implication (1) $\Rightarrow$ (2) follows from the fact
that under the hypotheses of (2) the fibre product
$U \times_S V$ is an affine open of $X \times_S X$.
The implication (2) $\Rightarrow$ (3) is trivial.
\end{proof}
```

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