## Tag `02O3`

## 29.19. Higher direct images of coherent sheaves

In this section we prove the fundamental fact that the higher direct images of a coherent sheaf under a proper morphism are coherent.

Proposition 29.19.1. Let $S$ be a locally Noetherian scheme. Let $f : X \to S$ be a proper morphism. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Then $R^if_*\mathcal{F}$ is a coherent $\mathcal{O}_S$-module for all $i \geq 0$.

Proof.Since the problem is local on $S$ we may assume that $S$ is a Noetherian scheme. Since a proper morphism is of finite type we see that in this case $X$ is a Noetherian scheme also. Consider the property $\mathcal{P}$ of coherent sheaves on $X$ defined by the rule $$ \mathcal{P}(\mathcal{F}) \Leftrightarrow R^pf_*\mathcal{F}\text{ is coherent for all }p \geq 0 $$ We are going to use the result of Lemma 29.12.6 to prove that $\mathcal{P}$ holds for every coherent sheaf on $X$.Let $$ 0 \to \mathcal{F}_1 \to \mathcal{F}_2 \to \mathcal{F}_3 \to 0 $$ be a short exact sequence of coherent sheaves on $X$. Consider the long exact sequence of higher direct images $$ R^{p - 1}f_*\mathcal{F}_3 \to R^pf_*\mathcal{F}_1 \to R^pf_*\mathcal{F}_2 \to R^pf_*\mathcal{F}_3 \to R^{p + 1}f_*\mathcal{F}_1 $$ Then it is clear that if 2-out-of-3 of the sheaves $\mathcal{F}_i$ have property $\mathcal{P}$, then the higher direct images of the third are sandwiched in this exact complex between two coherent sheaves. Hence these higher direct images are also coherent by Lemma 29.9.2 and 29.9.3. Hence property $\mathcal{P}$ holds for the third as well.

Let $Z \subset X$ be an integral closed subscheme. We have to find a coherent sheaf $\mathcal{F}$ on $X$ whose support is contained in $Z$, whose stalk at the generic point $\xi$ of $Z$ is a $1$-dimensional vector space over $\kappa(\xi)$ such that $\mathcal{P}$ holds for $\mathcal{F}$. Denote $g = f|_Z : Z \to S$ the restriction of $f$. Suppose we can find a coherent sheaf $\mathcal{G}$ on $Z$ such that (a) $\mathcal{G}_\xi$ is a $1$-dimensional vector space over $\kappa(\xi)$, (b) $R^pg_*\mathcal{G} = 0$ for $p > 0$, and (c) $g_*\mathcal{G}$ is coherent. Then we can consider $\mathcal{F} = (Z \to X)_*\mathcal{G}$. As $Z \to X$ is a closed immersion we see that $(Z \to X)_*\mathcal{G}$ is coherent on $X$ and $R^p(Z \to X)_*\mathcal{G} = 0$ for $p > 0$ (Lemma 29.9.9). Hence by the relative Leray spectral sequence (Cohomology, Lemma 20.14.8) we will have $R^pf_*\mathcal{F} = R^pg_*\mathcal{G} = 0$ for $p > 0$ and $f_*\mathcal{F} = g_*\mathcal{G}$ is coherent. Finally $\mathcal{F}_\xi = ((Z \to X)_*\mathcal{G})_\xi = \mathcal{G}_\xi$ which verifies the condition on the stalk at $\xi$. Hence everything depends on finding a coherent sheaf $\mathcal{G}$ on $Z$ which has properties (a), (b), and (c).

We can apply Chow's Lemma 29.18.1 to the morphism $Z \to S$. Thus we get a diagram $$ \xymatrix{ Z \ar[rd]_g & Z' \ar[d]^-{g'} \ar[l]^\pi \ar[r]_i & \mathbf{P}^n_S \ar[dl] \\ & S & } $$ as in the statement of Chow's lemma. Also, let $U \subset Z$ be the dense open subscheme such that $\pi^{-1}(U) \to U$ is an isomorphism. By the discussion in Remark 29.18.2 we see that $i' = (i, \pi) : Z' \to \mathbf{P}^n_Z$ is a closed immersion. Hence $$ \mathcal{L} = i^*\mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{P}^n_S}(1) \cong (i')^*\mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{P}^n_Z}(1) $$ is $g'$-relatively ample and $\pi$-relatively ample (for example by Morphisms, Lemma 28.37.7). Hence by Lemma 29.16.2 there exists an $n \geq 0$ such that both $R^p\pi_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n} = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and $R^p(g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n} = 0$ for all $p > 0$. Set $\mathcal{G} = \pi_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}$. Property (a) holds because $\pi_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes}|_U$ is an invertible sheaf (as $\pi^{-1}(U) \to U$ is an isomorphism). Properties (b) and (c) hold because by the relative Leray spectral sequence (Cohomology, Lemma 20.14.8) we have $$ E_2^{p, q} = R^pg_* R^q\pi_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n} \Rightarrow R^{p + q}(g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n} $$ and by choice of $n$ the only nonzero terms in $E_2^{p, q}$ are those with $q = 0$ and the only nonzero terms of $R^{p + q}(g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}$ are those with $p = q = 0$. This implies that $R^pg_*\mathcal{G} = 0$ for $p > 0$ and that $g_*\mathcal{G} = (g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}$. Finally, applying the previous Lemma 29.16.3 we see that $g_*\mathcal{G} = (g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}$ is coherent as desired. $\square$

Lemma 29.19.2. Let $S = \mathop{\rm Spec}(A)$ with $A$ a Noetherian ring. Let $f : X \to S$ be a proper morphism. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Then $H^i(X, \mathcal{F})$ is finite $A$-module for all $i \geq 0$.

Proof.This is just the affine case of Proposition 29.19.1. Namely, by Lemmas 29.4.5 and 29.4.6 we know that $R^if_*\mathcal{F}$ is the quasi-coherent sheaf associated to the $A$-module $H^i(X, \mathcal{F})$ and by Lemma 29.9.1 this is a coherent sheaf if and only if $H^i(X, \mathcal{F})$ is an $A$-module of finite type. $\square$Lemma 29.19.3. Let $A$ be a Noetherian ring. Let $B$ be a finitely generated graded $A$-algebra. Let $f : X \to \mathop{\rm Spec}(A)$ be a proper morphism. Set $\mathcal{B} = f^*\widetilde B$. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a quasi-coherent graded $\mathcal{B}$-module of finite type.

- For every $p \geq 0$ the graded $B$-module $H^p(X, \mathcal{F})$ is a finite $B$-module.
- If $\mathcal{L}$ is an ample invertible $\mathcal{O}_X$-module, then there exists an integer $d_0$ such that $H^p(X, \mathcal{F} \otimes \mathcal{L}^{\otimes d}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and $d \geq d_0$.

Proof.To prove this we consider the fibre product diagram $$ \xymatrix{ X' = \mathop{\rm Spec}(B) \times_{\mathop{\rm Spec}(A)} X \ar[r]_-\pi \ar[d]_{f'} & X \ar[d]^f \\ \mathop{\rm Spec}(B) \ar[r] & \mathop{\rm Spec}(A) } $$ Note that $f'$ is a proper morphism, see Morphisms, Lemma 28.39.5. Also, $B$ is a finitely generated $A$-algebra, and hence Noetherian (Algebra, Lemma 10.30.1). This implies that $X'$ is a Noetherian scheme (Morphisms, Lemma 28.14.6). Note that $X'$ is the relative spectrum of the quasi-coherent $\mathcal{O}_X$-algebra $\mathcal{B}$ by Constructions, Lemma 26.4.6. Since $\mathcal{F}$ is a quasi-coherent $\mathcal{B}$-module we see that there is a unique quasi-coherent $\mathcal{O}_{X'}$-module $\mathcal{F}'$ such that $\pi_*\mathcal{F}' = \mathcal{F}$, see Morphisms, Lemma 28.11.6 Since $\mathcal{F}$ is finite type as a $\mathcal{B}$-module we conclude that $\mathcal{F}'$ is a finite type $\mathcal{O}_{X'}$-module (details omitted). In other words, $\mathcal{F}'$ is a coherent $\mathcal{O}_{X'}$-module (Lemma 29.9.1). Since the morphism $\pi : X' \to X$ is affine we have $$ H^p(X, \mathcal{F}) = H^p(X', \mathcal{F}') $$ by Lemma 29.2.4. Thus (1) follows from Lemma 29.19.2. Given $\mathcal{L}$ as in (2) we set $\mathcal{L}' = \pi^*\mathcal{L}$. Note that $\mathcal{L}'$ is ample on $X'$ by Morphisms, Lemma 28.35.7. By the projection formula (Cohomology, Lemma 20.45.2) we have $\pi_*(\mathcal{F}' \otimes \mathcal{L}') = \mathcal{F} \otimes \mathcal{L}$. Thus part (2) follows by the same reasoning as above from Lemma 29.16.2. $\square$

The code snippet corresponding to this tag is a part of the file `coherent.tex` and is located in lines 4724–4947 (see updates for more information).

```
\section{Higher direct images of coherent sheaves}
\label{section-proper-pushforward}
\noindent
In this section we prove the fundamental fact that the higher
direct images of a coherent sheaf under a proper morphism
are coherent.
\begin{proposition}
\label{proposition-proper-pushforward-coherent}
\begin{reference}
\cite[III Theorem 3.2.1]{EGA}
\end{reference}
Let $S$ be a locally Noetherian scheme.
Let $f : X \to S$ be a proper morphism.
Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
Then $R^if_*\mathcal{F}$ is a coherent $\mathcal{O}_S$-module
for all $i \geq 0$.
\end{proposition}
\begin{proof}
Since the problem is local on $S$ we may assume that $S$ is
a Noetherian scheme. Since a proper morphism is of finite type
we see that in this case $X$ is a Noetherian scheme also.
Consider the property $\mathcal{P}$ of coherent sheaves
on $X$ defined by the rule
$$
\mathcal{P}(\mathcal{F}) \Leftrightarrow
R^pf_*\mathcal{F}\text{ is coherent for all }p \geq 0
$$
We are going to use the result of
Lemma \ref{lemma-property} to prove that
$\mathcal{P}$ holds for every coherent sheaf on $X$.
\medskip\noindent
Let
$$
0 \to \mathcal{F}_1 \to \mathcal{F}_2 \to \mathcal{F}_3 \to 0
$$
be a short exact sequence of coherent sheaves on $X$.
Consider the long exact sequence of higher direct images
$$
R^{p - 1}f_*\mathcal{F}_3 \to
R^pf_*\mathcal{F}_1 \to
R^pf_*\mathcal{F}_2 \to
R^pf_*\mathcal{F}_3 \to
R^{p + 1}f_*\mathcal{F}_1
$$
Then it is clear that if 2-out-of-3 of the sheaves $\mathcal{F}_i$
have property $\mathcal{P}$, then the higher direct images of the
third are sandwiched in this exact complex between two coherent
sheaves. Hence these higher direct images are also coherent by
Lemma \ref{lemma-coherent-abelian-Noetherian} and
\ref{lemma-coherent-Noetherian-quasi-coherent-sub-quotient}.
Hence property $\mathcal{P}$ holds for the third as well.
\medskip\noindent
Let $Z \subset X$ be an integral closed subscheme.
We have to find a coherent sheaf $\mathcal{F}$ on $X$ whose support is
contained in $Z$, whose stalk at the generic point $\xi$ of $Z$ is a
$1$-dimensional vector space over $\kappa(\xi)$ such that $\mathcal{P}$
holds for $\mathcal{F}$. Denote $g = f|_Z : Z \to S$ the restriction of $f$.
Suppose we can find a coherent sheaf $\mathcal{G}$ on $Z$ such
that
(a) $\mathcal{G}_\xi$ is a $1$-dimensional vector space over $\kappa(\xi)$,
(b) $R^pg_*\mathcal{G} = 0$ for $p > 0$, and
(c) $g_*\mathcal{G}$ is coherent. Then we can consider
$\mathcal{F} = (Z \to X)_*\mathcal{G}$. As $Z \to X$ is a closed immersion
we see that $(Z \to X)_*\mathcal{G}$ is coherent on $X$
and $R^p(Z \to X)_*\mathcal{G} = 0$ for $p > 0$
(Lemma \ref{lemma-finite-pushforward-coherent}).
Hence by the relative Leray spectral sequence
(Cohomology, Lemma \ref{cohomology-lemma-relative-Leray})
we will have $R^pf_*\mathcal{F} = R^pg_*\mathcal{G} = 0$ for $p > 0$
and $f_*\mathcal{F} = g_*\mathcal{G}$ is coherent.
Finally $\mathcal{F}_\xi = ((Z \to X)_*\mathcal{G})_\xi = \mathcal{G}_\xi$
which verifies the condition on the stalk at $\xi$.
Hence everything depends on finding a coherent sheaf $\mathcal{G}$
on $Z$ which has properties (a), (b), and (c).
\medskip\noindent
We can apply Chow's Lemma \ref{lemma-chow-Noetherian}
to the morphism $Z \to S$. Thus we get a diagram
$$
\xymatrix{
Z \ar[rd]_g & Z' \ar[d]^-{g'} \ar[l]^\pi \ar[r]_i & \mathbf{P}^n_S \ar[dl] \\
& S &
}
$$
as in the statement of Chow's lemma. Also, let $U \subset Z$ be
the dense open subscheme such that $\pi^{-1}(U) \to U$ is an isomorphism.
By the discussion in Remark \ref{remark-chow-Noetherian} we see that
$i' = (i, \pi) : Z' \to \mathbf{P}^n_Z$ is
a closed immersion. Hence
$$
\mathcal{L} = i^*\mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{P}^n_S}(1) \cong
(i')^*\mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{P}^n_Z}(1)
$$
is $g'$-relatively ample and $\pi$-relatively ample (for example by
Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-characterize-ample-on-finite-type}).
Hence by Lemma \ref{lemma-kill-by-twisting}
there exists an $n \geq 0$ such that
both $R^p\pi_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n} = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and
$R^p(g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n} = 0$ for all $p > 0$.
Set $\mathcal{G} = \pi_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}$.
Property (a) holds because $\pi_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes}|_U$ is
an invertible sheaf (as $\pi^{-1}(U) \to U$ is an isomorphism).
Properties (b) and (c) hold because by the relative Leray
spectral sequence
(Cohomology, Lemma \ref{cohomology-lemma-relative-Leray})
we have
$$
E_2^{p, q} = R^pg_* R^q\pi_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}
\Rightarrow
R^{p + q}(g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}
$$
and by choice of $n$ the only nonzero terms in $E_2^{p, q}$ are
those with $q = 0$ and the only nonzero terms of
$R^{p + q}(g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}$ are those with $p = q = 0$.
This implies that $R^pg_*\mathcal{G} = 0$ for $p > 0$ and
that $g_*\mathcal{G} = (g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}$.
Finally, applying the previous
Lemma \ref{lemma-locally-projective-pushforward}
we see that $g_*\mathcal{G} = (g')_*\mathcal{L}^{\otimes n}$ is
coherent as desired.
\end{proof}
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-proper-over-affine-cohomology-finite}
Let $S = \Spec(A)$ with $A$ a Noetherian ring.
Let $f : X \to S$ be a proper morphism.
Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
Then $H^i(X, \mathcal{F})$ is finite $A$-module for all $i \geq 0$.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
This is just the affine case of
Proposition \ref{proposition-proper-pushforward-coherent}.
Namely, by Lemmas \ref{lemma-quasi-coherence-higher-direct-images} and
\ref{lemma-quasi-coherence-higher-direct-images-application} we know that
$R^if_*\mathcal{F}$ is the quasi-coherent sheaf associated
to the $A$-module $H^i(X, \mathcal{F})$
and by Lemma \ref{lemma-coherent-Noetherian} this is
a coherent sheaf if and only if $H^i(X, \mathcal{F})$
is an $A$-module of finite type.
\end{proof}
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-graded-finiteness}
Let $A$ be a Noetherian ring.
Let $B$ be a finitely generated graded $A$-algebra.
Let $f : X \to \Spec(A)$ be a proper morphism.
Set $\mathcal{B} = f^*\widetilde B$.
Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a quasi-coherent
graded $\mathcal{B}$-module of finite type.
\begin{enumerate}
\item For every $p \geq 0$ the graded $B$-module $H^p(X, \mathcal{F})$
is a finite $B$-module.
\item If $\mathcal{L}$ is an ample invertible $\mathcal{O}_X$-module,
then there exists an integer $d_0$ such that
$H^p(X, \mathcal{F} \otimes \mathcal{L}^{\otimes d}) = 0$
for all $p > 0$ and $d \geq d_0$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
To prove this we consider the fibre product diagram
$$
\xymatrix{
X' = \Spec(B) \times_{\Spec(A)} X
\ar[r]_-\pi \ar[d]_{f'} &
X \ar[d]^f \\
\Spec(B) \ar[r] &
\Spec(A)
}
$$
Note that $f'$ is a proper morphism, see
Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-base-change-proper}.
Also, $B$ is a finitely generated $A$-algebra, and hence
Noetherian (Algebra, Lemma \ref{algebra-lemma-Noetherian-permanence}).
This implies that $X'$ is a Noetherian scheme
(Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-finite-type-noetherian}).
Note that $X'$ is the relative spectrum of the quasi-coherent
$\mathcal{O}_X$-algebra $\mathcal{B}$ by
Constructions, Lemma \ref{constructions-lemma-spec-properties}.
Since $\mathcal{F}$ is a quasi-coherent $\mathcal{B}$-module
we see that there is a unique quasi-coherent
$\mathcal{O}_{X'}$-module $\mathcal{F}'$ such that
$\pi_*\mathcal{F}' = \mathcal{F}$, see
Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-affine-equivalence-modules}
Since $\mathcal{F}$ is finite type as a $\mathcal{B}$-module we
conclude that $\mathcal{F}'$ is a finite type
$\mathcal{O}_{X'}$-module (details omitted). In other words,
$\mathcal{F}'$ is a coherent $\mathcal{O}_{X'}$-module
(Lemma \ref{lemma-coherent-Noetherian}).
Since the morphism $\pi : X' \to X$ is affine we have
$$
H^p(X, \mathcal{F}) = H^p(X', \mathcal{F}')
$$
by Lemma \ref{lemma-relative-affine-cohomology}.
Thus (1) follows from
Lemma \ref{lemma-proper-over-affine-cohomology-finite}.
Given $\mathcal{L}$ as in (2) we set
$\mathcal{L}' = \pi^*\mathcal{L}$. Note that $\mathcal{L}'$ is
ample on $X'$ by
Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-pullback-ample-tensor-relatively-ample}.
By the projection formula
(Cohomology, Lemma \ref{cohomology-lemma-projection-formula}) we have
$\pi_*(\mathcal{F}' \otimes \mathcal{L}') = \mathcal{F} \otimes \mathcal{L}$.
Thus part (2) follows by the same reasoning as above from
Lemma \ref{lemma-kill-by-twisting}.
\end{proof}
```

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