## Tag `051E`

## 10.100. Flatness criteria over Artinian rings

We discuss some flatness criteria for modules over Artinian rings. Note that an Artinian local ring has a nilpotent maximal ideal so that the following two lemmas apply to Artinian local rings.

Lemma 10.100.1. Let $(R, \mathfrak m)$ be a local ring with nilpotent maximal ideal $\mathfrak m$. Let $M$ be a flat $R$-module. If $A$ is a set and $x_\alpha \in M$, $\alpha \in A$ is a collection of elements of $M$, then the following are equivalent:

- $\{\overline{x}_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis for the vector space $M/\mathfrak mM$ over $R/\mathfrak m$, and
- $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis for $M$ over $R$.

Proof.The implication (2) $\Rightarrow$ (1) is immediate. We will prove the other implication by using induction on $n$ to show that $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis for $M/\mathfrak m^nM$ over $R/\mathfrak m^n$. The case $n = 1$ holds by assumption (1). Assume the statement holds for some $n \geq 1$. By Nakayama's Lemma 10.19.1 the elements $x_\alpha$ generate $M$, in particular $M/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M$. The exact sequence $0 \to \mathfrak m^n/\mathfrak m^{n + 1} \to R/\mathfrak m^{n + 1} \to R/\mathfrak m^n \to 0$ gives on tensoring with $M$ the exact sequence $$ 0 \to \mathfrak m^nM/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M \to M/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M \to M/\mathfrak m^nM \to 0 $$ Here we are using that $M$ is flat. Moreover, we have $\mathfrak m^nM/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M = M/\mathfrak mM \otimes_{R/\mathfrak m} \mathfrak m^n/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}$ by flatness of $M$ again. Now suppose that $\sum f_\alpha x_\alpha = 0$ in $M/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M$. Then by induction hypothesis $f_\alpha \in \mathfrak m^n$ for each $\alpha$. By the short exact sequence above we then conclude that $\sum \overline{f}_\alpha \otimes \overline{x}_\alpha$ is zero in $\mathfrak m^n/\mathfrak m^{n + 1} \otimes_{R/\mathfrak m} M/\mathfrak mM$. Since $\overline{x}_\alpha$ forms a basis we conclude that each of the congruence classes $\overline{f}_\alpha \in \mathfrak m^n/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}$ is zero and we win. $\square$Lemma 10.100.2. Let $R$ be a local ring with nilpotent maximal ideal. Let $M$ be an $R$-module. The following are equivalent

- $M$ is flat over $R$,
- $M$ is a free $R$-module, and
- $M$ is a projective $R$-module.

Proof.Since any projective module is flat (as a direct summand of a free module) and every free module is projective, it suffices to prove that a flat module is free. Let $M$ be a flat module. Let $A$ be a set and let $x_\alpha \in M$, $\alpha \in A$ be elements such that $\overline{x_\alpha} \in M/\mathfrak m M$ forms a basis over the residue field of $R$. By Lemma 10.100.1 the $x_\alpha$ are a basis for $M$ over $R$ and we win. $\square$Lemma 10.100.3. Let $R$ be a ring. Let $I \subset R$ be an ideal. Let $M$ be an $R$-module. Let $A$ be a set and let $x_\alpha \in M$, $\alpha \in A$ be a collection of elements of $M$. Assume

- $I$ is nilpotent,
- $\{\overline{x}_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis for $M/IM$ over $R/I$, and
- $\text{Tor}_1^R(R/I, M) = 0$.
Then $M$ is free on $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ over $R$.

Proof.Let $R$, $I$, $M$, $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ be as in the lemma and satisfy assumptions (1), (2), and (3). By Nakayama's Lemma 10.19.1 the elements $x_\alpha$ generate $M$ over $R$. The assumption $\text{Tor}_1^R(R/I, M) = 0$ implies that we have a short exact sequence $$ 0 \to I \otimes_R M \to M \to M/IM \to 0. $$ Let $\sum f_\alpha x_\alpha = 0$ be a relation in $M$. By choice of $x_\alpha$ we see that $f_\alpha \in I$. Hence we conclude that $\sum f_\alpha \otimes x_\alpha = 0$ in $I \otimes_R M$. The map $I \otimes_R M \to I/I^2 \otimes_{R/I} M/IM$ and the fact that $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis for $M/IM$ implies that $f_\alpha \in I^2$! Hence we conclude that there are no relations among the images of the $x_\alpha$ in $M/I^2M$. In other words, we see that $M/I^2M$ is free with basis the images of the $x_\alpha$. Using the map $I \otimes_R M \to I/I^3 \otimes_{R/I^2} M/I^2M$ we then conclude that $f_\alpha \in I^3$! And so on. Since $I^n = 0$ for some $n$ by assumption (1) we win. $\square$Lemma 10.100.4. Let $\varphi : R \to R'$ be a ring map. Let $I \subset R$ be an ideal. Let $M$ be an $R$-module. Assume

- $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$, and
- $R' \otimes_R M$ is flat over $R'$.
Set $I_2 = \varphi^{-1}(\varphi(I^2)R')$. Then $M/I_2M$ is flat over $R/I_2$.

Proof.We may replace $R$, $M$, and $R'$ by $R/I_2$, $M/I_2M$, and $R'/\varphi(I)^2R'$. Then $I^2 = 0$ and $\varphi$ is injective. By Lemma 10.98.8 and the fact that $I^2 = 0$ it suffices to prove that $\text{Tor}^R_1(R/I, M) = K = \mathop{\rm Ker}(I \otimes_R M \to M)$ is zero. Set $M' = M \otimes_R R'$ and $I' = IR'$. By assumption the map $I' \otimes_{R'} M' \to M'$ is injective. Hence $K$ maps to zero in $$ I' \otimes_{R'} M' = I' \otimes_R M = I' \otimes_{R/I} M/IM. $$ Then $I \to I'$ is an injective map of $R/I$-modules. Since $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ the map $$ I \otimes_{R/I} M/IM \longrightarrow I' \otimes_{R/I} M/IM $$ is injective. This implies that $K$ is zero in $I \otimes_R M = I \otimes_{R/I} M/IM$ as desired. $\square$Lemma 10.100.5. Let $\varphi : R \to R'$ be a ring map. Let $I \subset R$ be an ideal. Let $M$ be an $R$-module. Assume

- $I$ is nilpotent,
- $R \to R'$ is injective,
- $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$, and
- $R' \otimes_R M$ is flat over $R'$.
Then $M$ is flat over $R$.

Proof.Define inductively $I_1 = I$ and $I_{n + 1} = \varphi^{-1}(\varphi(I_n)^2R')$ for $n \geq 1$. Note that by Lemma 10.100.4 we find that $M/I_nM$ is flat over $R/I_n$ for each $n \geq 1$. It is clear that $\varphi(I_n) \subset \varphi(I)^{2^n}R'$. Since $I$ is nilpotent we see that $\varphi(I_n) = 0$ for some $n$. As $\varphi$ is injective we conclude that $I_n = 0$ for some $n$ and we win. $\square$Here is the local Artinian version of the local criterion for flatness.

Lemma 10.100.6. Let $R$ be an Artinian local ring. Let $M$ be an $R$-module. Let $I \subset R$ be a proper ideal. The following are equivalent

- $M$ is flat over $R$, and
- $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ and $\text{Tor}_1^R(R/I, M) = 0$.

Proof.The implication (1) $\Rightarrow$ (2) follows immediately from the definitions. Assume $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ and $\text{Tor}_1^R(R/I, M) = 0$. By Lemma 10.100.2 this implies that $M/IM$ is free over $R/I$. Pick a set $A$ and elements $x_\alpha \in M$ such that the images in $M/IM$ form a basis. By Lemma 10.100.3 we conclude that $M$ is free and in particular flat. $\square$It turns out that flatness descends along injective homomorphism whose source is an Artinian ring.

Lemma 10.100.7. Let $R \to S$ be a ring map. Let $M$ be an $R$-module. Assume

- $R$ is Artinian
- $R \to S$ is injective, and
- $M \otimes_R S$ is a flat $S$-module.
Then $M$ is a flat $R$-module.

Proof.First proof: Let $I \subset R$ be the radical of $R$. Then $I$ is nilpotent and $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ as $R/I$ is a product of fields, see Section 10.52. Hence $M$ is flat by an application of Lemma 10.100.5.Second proof: By Lemma 10.52.6 we may write $R = \prod R_i$ as a finite product of local Artinian rings. This induces similar product decompositions for both $R$ and $S$. Hence we reduce to the case where $R$ is local Artinian (details omitted).

Assume that $R \to S$, $M$ are as in the lemma satisfying (1), (2), and (3) and in addition that $R$ is local with maximal ideal $\mathfrak m$. Let $A$ be a set and $x_\alpha \in A$ be elements such that $\overline{x}_\alpha$ forms a basis for $M/\mathfrak mM$ over $R/\mathfrak m$. By Nakayama's Lemma 10.19.1 we see that the elements $x_\alpha$ generate $M$ as an $R$-module. Set $N = S \otimes_R M$ and $I = \mathfrak mS$. Then $\{1 \otimes x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ is a family of elements of $N$ which form a basis for $N/IN$. Moreover, since $N$ is flat over $S$ we have $\text{Tor}_1^S(S/I, N) = 0$. Thus we conclude from Lemma 10.100.3 that $N$ is free on $\{1 \otimes x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$. The injectivity of $R \to S$ then guarantees that there cannot be a nontrivial relation among the $x_\alpha$ with coefficients in $R$. $\square$

Please compare the lemma below to Lemma 10.98.15 (the case of Noetherian local rings), Lemma 10.127.8 (the case of finitely presented algebras), and Lemma 10.127.10 (the case of locally nilpotent ideals).

Lemma 10.100.8 (Critère de platitude par fibres: Nilpotent case). Let $$ \xymatrix{ S \ar[rr] & & S' \\ & R \ar[lu] \ar[ru] } $$ be a commutative diagram in the category of rings. Let $I \subset R$ be a nilpotent ideal and $M$ an $S'$-module. Assume

- The module $M/IM$ is a flat $S/IS$-module.
- The module $M$ is a flat $R$-module.
Then $M$ is a flat $S$-module and $S_{\mathfrak q}$ is flat over $R$ for every $\mathfrak q \subset S$ such that $M \otimes_S \kappa(\mathfrak q)$ is nonzero.

Proof.As $M$ is flat over $R$ tensoring with the short exact sequence $0 \to I \to R \to R/I \to 0$ gives a short exact sequence $$ 0 \to I \otimes_R M \to M \to M/IM \to 0. $$ Note that $I \otimes_R M \to IS \otimes_S M$ is surjective. Combined with the above this means both maps in $$ I \otimes_R M \to IS \otimes_S M \to M $$ are injective. Hence $\text{Tor}_1^S(IS, M) = 0$ (see Remark 10.74.9) and we conclude that $M$ is a flat $S$-module by Lemma 10.98.8. To finish we need to show that $S_{\mathfrak q}$ is flat over $R$ for any prime $\mathfrak q \subset S$ such that $M \otimes_S \kappa(\mathfrak q)$ is nonzero. This follows from Lemma 10.38.15 and 10.38.10. $\square$

The code snippet corresponding to this tag is a part of the file `algebra.tex` and is located in lines 22924–23231 (see updates for more information).

```
\section{Flatness criteria over Artinian rings}
\label{section-flatness-artinian}
\noindent
We discuss some flatness criteria for modules over Artinian rings.
Note that an Artinian local ring has a nilpotent maximal ideal
so that the following two lemmas apply to Artinian local rings.
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-local-artinian-basis-when-flat}
Let $(R, \mathfrak m)$ be a local ring with nilpotent maximal ideal
$\mathfrak m$. Let $M$ be a flat $R$-module.
If $A$ is a set and $x_\alpha \in M$, $\alpha \in A$ is a collection
of elements of $M$, then the following are equivalent:
\begin{enumerate}
\item $\{\overline{x}_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis
for the vector space $M/\mathfrak mM$ over $R/\mathfrak m$, and
\item $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis for $M$ over $R$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
The implication (2) $\Rightarrow$ (1) is immediate.
We will prove the other implication by using induction on $n$ to show that
$\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis for
$M/\mathfrak m^nM$ over $R/\mathfrak m^n$. The case $n = 1$ holds by
assumption (1). Assume the statement holds for some $n \geq 1$. By
Nakayama's Lemma \ref{lemma-NAK}
the elements $x_\alpha$ generate $M$, in particular $M/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M$.
The exact sequence
$0 \to \mathfrak m^n/\mathfrak m^{n + 1} \to R/\mathfrak m^{n + 1} \to
R/\mathfrak m^n \to 0$
gives on tensoring with $M$ the exact sequence
$$
0 \to \mathfrak m^nM/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M \to
M/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M \to
M/\mathfrak m^nM \to 0
$$
Here we are using that $M$ is flat.
Moreover, we have $\mathfrak m^nM/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M =
M/\mathfrak mM \otimes_{R/\mathfrak m} \mathfrak m^n/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}$
by flatness of $M$ again.
Now suppose that $\sum f_\alpha x_\alpha = 0$ in $M/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}M$.
Then by induction hypothesis $f_\alpha \in \mathfrak m^n$ for each $\alpha$.
By the short exact sequence above we then conclude that
$\sum \overline{f}_\alpha \otimes \overline{x}_\alpha$ is zero in
$\mathfrak m^n/\mathfrak m^{n + 1} \otimes_{R/\mathfrak m} M/\mathfrak mM$.
Since $\overline{x}_\alpha$ forms a basis we conclude that each of the
congruence classes $\overline{f}_\alpha \in \mathfrak m^n/\mathfrak m^{n + 1}$
is zero and we win.
\end{proof}
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-local-artinian-characterize-flat}
Let $R$ be a local ring with nilpotent maximal ideal. Let $M$ be an $R$-module.
The following are equivalent
\begin{enumerate}
\item $M$ is flat over $R$,
\item $M$ is a free $R$-module, and
\item $M$ is a projective $R$-module.
\end{enumerate}
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
Since any projective module is flat (as a direct summand of a free module)
and every free module is projective, it suffices to prove that a flat module
is free. Let $M$ be a flat module. Let $A$ be a set and let $x_\alpha \in M$,
$\alpha \in A$ be elements such that
$\overline{x_\alpha} \in M/\mathfrak m M$ forms a basis over the residue
field of $R$. By
Lemma \ref{lemma-local-artinian-basis-when-flat}
the $x_\alpha$ are a basis for $M$ over $R$ and we win.
\end{proof}
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-lift-basis}
Let $R$ be a ring.
Let $I \subset R$ be an ideal.
Let $M$ be an $R$-module.
Let $A$ be a set and let $x_\alpha \in M$, $\alpha \in A$ be a collection
of elements of $M$.
Assume
\begin{enumerate}
\item $I$ is nilpotent,
\item $\{\overline{x}_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis for $M/IM$ over
$R/I$, and
\item $\text{Tor}_1^R(R/I, M) = 0$.
\end{enumerate}
Then $M$ is free on $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ over $R$.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
Let $R$, $I$, $M$, $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ be as in the lemma
and satisfy assumptions (1), (2), and (3). By
Nakayama's Lemma \ref{lemma-NAK}
the elements $x_\alpha$ generate $M$ over $R$.
The assumption $\text{Tor}_1^R(R/I, M) = 0$ implies that we have a short
exact sequence
$$
0 \to I \otimes_R M \to M \to M/IM \to 0.
$$
Let $\sum f_\alpha x_\alpha = 0$ be a relation in $M$.
By choice of $x_\alpha$ we see that $f_\alpha \in I$.
Hence we conclude that $\sum f_\alpha \otimes x_\alpha = 0$ in
$I \otimes_R M$. The map $I \otimes_R M \to I/I^2 \otimes_{R/I} M/IM$
and the fact that $\{x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ forms a basis
for $M/IM$ implies that $f_\alpha \in I^2$! Hence we conclude that
there are no relations among the images of the $x_\alpha$ in
$M/I^2M$. In other words, we see that $M/I^2M$ is free with basis
the images of the $x_\alpha$. Using the map
$I \otimes_R M \to I/I^3 \otimes_{R/I^2} M/I^2M$
we then conclude that $f_\alpha \in I^3$!
And so on. Since $I^n = 0$ for some $n$ by assumption (1) we win.
\end{proof}
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-prepare-lift-flatness}
Let $\varphi : R \to R'$ be a ring map.
Let $I \subset R$ be an ideal.
Let $M$ be an $R$-module.
Assume
\begin{enumerate}
\item $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$, and
\item $R' \otimes_R M$ is flat over $R'$.
\end{enumerate}
Set $I_2 = \varphi^{-1}(\varphi(I^2)R')$.
Then $M/I_2M$ is flat over $R/I_2$.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
We may replace $R$, $M$, and $R'$ by $R/I_2$, $M/I_2M$, and
$R'/\varphi(I)^2R'$. Then $I^2 = 0$ and $\varphi$ is injective. By
Lemma \ref{lemma-what-does-it-mean}
and the fact that $I^2 = 0$ it suffices to prove that
$\text{Tor}^R_1(R/I, M) = K = \Ker(I \otimes_R M \to M)$ is zero.
Set $M' = M \otimes_R R'$ and $I' = IR'$.
By assumption the map $I' \otimes_{R'} M' \to M'$ is injective.
Hence $K$ maps to zero in
$$
I' \otimes_{R'} M' = I' \otimes_R M = I' \otimes_{R/I} M/IM.
$$
Then $I \to I'$ is an injective map of $R/I$-modules.
Since $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ the map
$$
I \otimes_{R/I} M/IM \longrightarrow I' \otimes_{R/I} M/IM
$$
is injective. This implies that $K$ is zero in
$I \otimes_R M = I \otimes_{R/I} M/IM$ as desired.
\end{proof}
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-lift-flatness}
Let $\varphi : R \to R'$ be a ring map.
Let $I \subset R$ be an ideal.
Let $M$ be an $R$-module.
Assume
\begin{enumerate}
\item $I$ is nilpotent,
\item $R \to R'$ is injective,
\item $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$, and
\item $R' \otimes_R M$ is flat over $R'$.
\end{enumerate}
Then $M$ is flat over $R$.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
Define inductively $I_1 = I$ and $I_{n + 1} = \varphi^{-1}(\varphi(I_n)^2R')$
for $n \geq 1$. Note that by
Lemma \ref{lemma-prepare-lift-flatness}
we find that $M/I_nM$ is flat over $R/I_n$ for each $n \geq 1$.
It is clear that $\varphi(I_n) \subset \varphi(I)^{2^n}R'$. Since
$I$ is nilpotent we see that $\varphi(I_n) = 0$ for some $n$. As
$\varphi$ is injective we conclude that $I_n = 0$ for some $n$ and
we win.
\end{proof}
\noindent
Here is the local Artinian version of the local criterion for flatness.
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-artinian-variant-local-criterion-flatness}
Let $R$ be an Artinian local ring. Let $M$ be an $R$-module.
Let $I \subset R$ be a proper ideal. The following are
equivalent
\begin{enumerate}
\item $M$ is flat over $R$, and
\item $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ and $\text{Tor}_1^R(R/I, M) = 0$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
The implication (1) $\Rightarrow$ (2) follows immediately from the
definitions. Assume $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ and
$\text{Tor}_1^R(R/I, M) = 0$. By
Lemma \ref{lemma-local-artinian-characterize-flat}
this implies that $M/IM$ is free over $R/I$. Pick a set $A$
and elements $x_\alpha \in M$ such that the images in $M/IM$ form
a basis. By
Lemma \ref{lemma-lift-basis}
we conclude that $M$ is free and in particular flat.
\end{proof}
\noindent
It turns out that flatness descends along injective homomorphism
whose source is an Artinian ring.
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-descent-flatness-injective-map-artinian-rings}
Let $R \to S$ be a ring map. Let $M$ be an $R$-module.
Assume
\begin{enumerate}
\item $R$ is Artinian
\item $R \to S$ is injective, and
\item $M \otimes_R S$ is a flat $S$-module.
\end{enumerate}
Then $M$ is a flat $R$-module.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
First proof: Let $I \subset R$ be the radical of $R$.
Then $I$ is nilpotent and $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ as $R/I$
is a product of fields, see
Section \ref{section-artinian}.
Hence $M$ is flat by an application of
Lemma \ref{lemma-lift-flatness}.
\medskip\noindent
Second proof: By
Lemma \ref{lemma-artinian-finite-length}
we may write $R = \prod R_i$ as a finite product of local Artinian
rings. This induces similar product decompositions for both $R$ and $S$.
Hence we reduce to the case where $R$ is local Artinian (details omitted).
\medskip\noindent
Assume that $R \to S$, $M$ are as in the lemma satisfying (1), (2), and (3)
and in addition that $R$ is local with maximal ideal $\mathfrak m$.
Let $A$ be a set and $x_\alpha \in A$ be elements such that
$\overline{x}_\alpha$ forms a basis for $M/\mathfrak mM$
over $R/\mathfrak m$. By
Nakayama's Lemma \ref{lemma-NAK}
we see that the elements $x_\alpha$ generate $M$ as an $R$-module.
Set $N = S \otimes_R M$ and $I = \mathfrak mS$.
Then $\{1 \otimes x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$ is a family of elements
of $N$ which form a basis for $N/IN$. Moreover, since $N$ is flat over
$S$ we have $\text{Tor}_1^S(S/I, N) = 0$. Thus we conclude from
Lemma \ref{lemma-lift-basis}
that $N$ is free on $\{1 \otimes x_\alpha\}_{\alpha \in A}$.
The injectivity of $R \to S$ then guarantees that there cannot be a
nontrivial relation among the $x_\alpha$ with coefficients in $R$.
\end{proof}
\noindent
Please compare the lemma below to
Lemma \ref{lemma-criterion-flatness-fibre-Noetherian}
(the case of Noetherian local rings),
Lemma \ref{lemma-criterion-flatness-fibre}
(the case of finitely presented algebras), and
Lemma \ref{lemma-criterion-flatness-fibre-locally-nilpotent}
(the case of locally nilpotent ideals).
\begin{lemma}[Crit\`ere de platitude par fibres: Nilpotent case]
\label{lemma-criterion-flatness-fibre-nilpotent}
Let
$$
\xymatrix{
S \ar[rr] & & S' \\
& R \ar[lu] \ar[ru]
}
$$
be a commutative diagram in the category of rings.
Let $I \subset R$ be a nilpotent ideal and $M$ an $S'$-module. Assume
\begin{enumerate}
\item The module $M/IM$ is a flat $S/IS$-module.
\item The module $M$ is a flat $R$-module.
\end{enumerate}
Then $M$ is a flat $S$-module and $S_{\mathfrak q}$ is flat over $R$
for every $\mathfrak q \subset S$ such that $M \otimes_S \kappa(\mathfrak q)$
is nonzero.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
As $M$ is flat over $R$ tensoring with the short exact
sequence $0 \to I \to R \to R/I \to 0$ gives a short exact sequence
$$
0 \to I \otimes_R M \to M \to M/IM \to 0.
$$
Note that $I \otimes_R M \to IS \otimes_S M$ is surjective. Combined with
the above this means both maps in
$$
I \otimes_R M \to IS \otimes_S M \to M
$$
are injective. Hence $\text{Tor}_1^S(IS, M) = 0$ (see
Remark \ref{remark-Tor-ring-mod-ideal})
and we conclude that $M$ is a flat $S$-module by
Lemma \ref{lemma-what-does-it-mean}.
To finish we need to show that $S_{\mathfrak q}$ is flat over
$R$ for any prime $\mathfrak q \subset S$ such that
$M \otimes_S \kappa(\mathfrak q)$ is nonzero. This follows from
Lemma \ref{lemma-ff} and \ref{lemma-flat-permanence}.
\end{proof}
```

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