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Tag 01EO

20.12. Čech cohomology and cohomology

Lemma 20.12.1. Let $X$ be a ringed space. Let $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be a covering. Let $\mathcal{I}$ be an injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Then $$ \check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}) = \left\{ \begin{matrix} \mathcal{I}(U) & \text{if} & p = 0 \\ 0 & \text{if} & p > 0 \end{matrix} \right. $$

Proof. An injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module is also injective as an object in the category $\textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X)$ (for example since sheafification is an exact left adjoint to the inclusion functor, using Homology, Lemma 12.25.1). Hence we can apply Lemma 20.11.5 (or its proof) to see the result. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.2. Let $X$ be a ringed space. Let $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be a covering. There is a transformation $$ \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, -) \longrightarrow R\Gamma(U, -) $$ of functors $\textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_X) \to D^{+}(\mathcal{O}_X(U))$. In particular this provides canonical maps $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) \to H^p(U, \mathcal{F})$ for $\mathcal{F}$ ranging over $\textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_X)$.

Proof. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Choose an injective resolution $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}^\bullet$. Consider the double complex $\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^\bullet)$ with terms $\check{\mathcal{C}}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^q)$. There is a map of complexes $$ \alpha : \Gamma(U, \mathcal{I}^\bullet) \longrightarrow \text{Tot}(\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^\bullet)) $$ coming from the maps $\mathcal{I}^q(U) \to \check{H}^0(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^q)$ and a map of complexes $$ \beta : \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) \longrightarrow \text{Tot}(\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^\bullet)) $$ coming from the map $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}^0$. We can apply Homology, Lemma 12.22.7 to see that $\alpha$ is a quasi-isomorphism. Namely, Lemma 20.12.1 implies that the $q$th row of the double complex $\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^\bullet)$ is a resolution of $\Gamma(U, \mathcal{I}^q)$. Hence $\alpha$ becomes invertible in $D^{+}(\mathcal{O}_X(U))$ and the transformation of the lemma is the composition of $\beta$ followed by the inverse of $\alpha$. We omit the verification that this is functorial. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.3. Let $X$ be a topological space. Let $\mathcal{H}$ be an abelian sheaf on $X$. Let $\mathcal{U} : X = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be an open covering. The map $$ \check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{H}) \longrightarrow H^1(X, \mathcal{H}) $$ is injective and identifies $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{H})$ via the bijection of Lemma 20.5.3 with the set of isomorphism classes of $\mathcal{H}$-torsors which restrict to trivial torsors over each $U_i$.

Proof. To see this we construct an inverse map. Namely, let $\mathcal{F}$ be a $\mathcal{H}$-torsor whose restriction to $U_i$ is trivial. By Lemma 20.5.2 this means there exists a section $s_i \in \mathcal{F}(U_i)$. On $U_{i_0} \cap U_{i_1}$ there is a unique section $s_{i_0i_1}$ of $\mathcal{H}$ such that $s_{i_0i_1} \cdot s_{i_0}|_{U_{i_0} \cap U_{i_1}} = s_{i_1}|_{U_{i_0} \cap U_{i_1}}$. A computation shows that $s_{i_0i_1}$ is a Čech cocycle and that its class is well defined (i.e., does not depend on the choice of the sections $s_i$). The inverse maps the isomorphism class of $\mathcal{F}$ to the cohomology class of the cocycle $(s_{i_0i_1})$. We omit the verification that this map is indeed an inverse. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.4. Let $X$ be a ringed space. Consider the functor $i : \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_X) \to \textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X)$. It is a left exact functor with right derived functors given by $$ R^pi(\mathcal{F}) = \underline{H}^p(\mathcal{F}) : U \longmapsto H^p(U, \mathcal{F}) $$ see discussion in Section 20.8.

Proof. It is clear that $i$ is left exact. Choose an injective resolution $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}^\bullet$. By definition $R^pi$ is the $p$th cohomology presheaf of the complex $\mathcal{I}^\bullet$. In other words, the sections of $R^pi(\mathcal{F})$ over an open $U$ are given by $$ \frac{\mathop{\rm Ker}(\mathcal{I}^n(U) \to \mathcal{I}^{n + 1}(U))} {\mathop{\rm Im}(\mathcal{I}^{n - 1}(U) \to \mathcal{I}^n(U))}. $$ which is the definition of $H^p(U, \mathcal{F})$. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.5. Let $X$ be a ringed space. Let $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be a covering. For any sheaf of $\mathcal{O}_X$-modules $\mathcal{F}$ there is a spectral sequence $(E_r, d_r)_{r \geq 0}$ with $$ E_2^{p, q} = \check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \underline{H}^q(\mathcal{F})) $$ converging to $H^{p + q}(U, \mathcal{F})$. This spectral sequence is functorial in $\mathcal{F}$.

Proof. This is a Grothendieck spectral sequence (see Derived Categories, Lemma 13.22.2) for the functors $$ i : \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_X) \to \textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X) \quad\text{and}\quad \check{H}^0(\mathcal{U}, - ) : \textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X) \to \text{Mod}_{\mathcal{O}_X(U)}. $$ Namely, we have $\check{H}^0(\mathcal{U}, i(\mathcal{F})) = \mathcal{F}(U)$ by Lemma 20.10.2. We have that $i(\mathcal{I})$ is Čech acyclic by Lemma 20.12.1. And we have that $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, -) = R^p\check{H}^0(\mathcal{U}, -)$ as functors on $\textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X)$ by Lemma 20.11.5. Putting everything together gives the lemma. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.6. Let $X$ be a ringed space. Let $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be a covering. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Assume that $H^i(U_{i_0 \ldots i_p}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ for all $i > 0$, all $p \geq 0$ and all $i_0, \ldots, i_p \in I$. Then $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = H^p(U, \mathcal{F})$ as $\mathcal{O}_X(U)$-modules.

Proof. We will use the spectral sequence of Lemma 20.12.5. The assumptions mean that $E_2^{p, q} = 0$ for all $(p, q)$ with $q \not = 0$. Hence the spectral sequence degenerates at $E_2$ and the result follows. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.7. Let $X$ be a ringed space. Let $$ 0 \to \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{G} \to \mathcal{H} \to 0 $$ be a short exact sequence of $\mathcal{O}_X$-modules. Let $U \subset X$ be an open subset. If there exists a cofinal system of open coverings $\mathcal{U}$ of $U$ such that $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$, then the map $\mathcal{G}(U) \to \mathcal{H}(U)$ is surjective.

Proof. Take an element $s \in \mathcal{H}(U)$. Choose an open covering $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ such that (a) $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ and (b) $s|_{U_i}$ is the image of a section $s_i \in \mathcal{G}(U_i)$. Since we can certainly find a covering such that (b) holds it follows from the assumptions of the lemma that we can find a covering such that (a) and (b) both hold. Consider the sections $$ s_{i_0i_1} = s_{i_1}|_{U_{i_0i_1}} - s_{i_0}|_{U_{i_0i_1}}. $$ Since $s_i$ lifts $s$ we see that $s_{i_0i_1} \in \mathcal{F}(U_{i_0i_1})$. By the vanishing of $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F})$ we can find sections $t_i \in \mathcal{F}(U_i)$ such that $$ s_{i_0i_1} = t_{i_1}|_{U_{i_0i_1}} - t_{i_0}|_{U_{i_0i_1}}. $$ Then clearly the sections $s_i - t_i$ satisfy the sheaf condition and glue to a section of $\mathcal{G}$ over $U$ which maps to $s$. Hence we win. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.8. Let $X$ be a ringed space. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module such that $$ \check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0 $$ for all $p > 0$ and any open covering $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ of an open of $X$. Then $H^p(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and any open $U \subset X$.

Proof. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a sheaf satisfying the assumption of the lemma. We will indicate this by saying ''$\mathcal{F}$ has vanishing higher Čech cohomology for any open covering''. Choose an embedding $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}$ into an injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. By Lemma 20.12.1 $\mathcal{I}$ has vanishing higher Čech cohomology for any open covering. Let $\mathcal{Q} = \mathcal{I}/\mathcal{F}$ so that we have a short exact sequence $$ 0 \to \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{Q} \to 0. $$ By Lemma 20.12.7 and our assumptions this sequence is actually exact as a sequence of presheaves! In particular we have a long exact sequence of Čech cohomology groups for any open covering $\mathcal{U}$, see Lemma 20.11.2 for example. This implies that $\mathcal{Q}$ is also an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module with vanishing higher Čech cohomology for all open coverings.

Next, we look at the long exact cohomology sequence $$ \xymatrix{ 0 \ar[r] & H^0(U, \mathcal{F}) \ar[r] & H^0(U, \mathcal{I}) \ar[r] & H^0(U, \mathcal{Q}) \ar[lld] \\ & H^1(U, \mathcal{F}) \ar[r] & H^1(U, \mathcal{I}) \ar[r] & H^1(U, \mathcal{Q}) \ar[lld] \\ & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots \\ } $$ for any open $U \subset X$. Since $\mathcal{I}$ is injective we have $H^n(U, \mathcal{I}) = 0$ for $n > 0$ (see Derived Categories, Lemma 13.20.4). By the above we see that $H^0(U, \mathcal{I}) \to H^0(U, \mathcal{Q})$ is surjective and hence $H^1(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$. Since $\mathcal{F}$ was an arbitrary $\mathcal{O}_X$-module with vanishing higher Čech cohomology we conclude that also $H^1(U, \mathcal{Q}) = 0$ since $\mathcal{Q}$ is another of these sheaves (see above). By the long exact sequence this in turn implies that $H^2(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$. And so on and so forth. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.9. (Variant of Lemma 20.12.8.) Let $X$ be a ringed space. Let $\mathcal{B}$ be a basis for the topology on $X$. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Assume there exists a set of open coverings $\text{Cov}$ with the following properties:

  1. For every $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$ with $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ we have $U, U_i \in \mathcal{B}$ and every $U_{i_0 \ldots i_p} \in \mathcal{B}$.
  2. For every $U \in \mathcal{B}$ the open coverings of $U$ occurring in $\text{Cov}$ is a cofinal system of open coverings of $U$.
  3. For every $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$ we have $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$.

Then $H^p(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and any $U \in \mathcal{B}$.

Proof. Let $\mathcal{F}$ and $\text{Cov}$ be as in the lemma. We will indicate this by saying ''$\mathcal{F}$ has vanishing higher Čech cohomology for any $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$''. Choose an embedding $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}$ into an injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. By Lemma 20.12.1 $\mathcal{I}$ has vanishing higher Čech cohomology for any $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$. Let $\mathcal{Q} = \mathcal{I}/\mathcal{F}$ so that we have a short exact sequence $$ 0 \to \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{Q} \to 0. $$ By Lemma 20.12.7 and our assumption (2) this sequence gives rise to an exact sequence $$ 0 \to \mathcal{F}(U) \to \mathcal{I}(U) \to \mathcal{Q}(U) \to 0. $$ for every $U \in \mathcal{B}$. Hence for any $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$ we get a short exact sequence of Čech complexes $$ 0 \to \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) \to \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}) \to \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{Q}) \to 0 $$ since each term in the Čech complex is made up out of a product of values over elements of $\mathcal{B}$ by assumption (1). In particular we have a long exact sequence of Čech cohomology groups for any open covering $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$. This implies that $\mathcal{Q}$ is also an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module with vanishing higher Čech cohomology for all $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$.

Next, we look at the long exact cohomology sequence $$ \xymatrix{ 0 \ar[r] & H^0(U, \mathcal{F}) \ar[r] & H^0(U, \mathcal{I}) \ar[r] & H^0(U, \mathcal{Q}) \ar[lld] \\ & H^1(U, \mathcal{F}) \ar[r] & H^1(U, \mathcal{I}) \ar[r] & H^1(U, \mathcal{Q}) \ar[lld] \\ & \ldots & \ldots & \ldots \\ } $$ for any $U \in \mathcal{B}$. Since $\mathcal{I}$ is injective we have $H^n(U, \mathcal{I}) = 0$ for $n > 0$ (see Derived Categories, Lemma 13.20.4). By the above we see that $H^0(U, \mathcal{I}) \to H^0(U, \mathcal{Q})$ is surjective and hence $H^1(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$. Since $\mathcal{F}$ was an arbitrary $\mathcal{O}_X$-module with vanishing higher Čech cohomology for all $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$ we conclude that also $H^1(U, \mathcal{Q}) = 0$ since $\mathcal{Q}$ is another of these sheaves (see above). By the long exact sequence this in turn implies that $H^2(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$. And so on and so forth. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.10. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of ringed spaces. Let $\mathcal{I}$ be an injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Then

  1. $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{V}, f_*\mathcal{I}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and any open covering $\mathcal{V} : V = \bigcup_{j \in J} V_j$ of $Y$.
  2. $H^p(V, f_*\mathcal{I}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and every open $V \subset Y$.

In other words, $f_*\mathcal{I}$ is right acyclic for $\Gamma(V, -)$ (see Derived Categories, Definition 13.16.3) for any $V \subset Y$ open.

Proof. Set $\mathcal{U} : f^{-1}(V) = \bigcup_{j \in J} f^{-1}(V_j)$. It is an open covering of $X$ and $$ \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{V}, f_*\mathcal{I}) = \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}). $$ This is true because $$ f_*\mathcal{I}(V_{j_0 \ldots j_p}) = \mathcal{I}(f^{-1}(V_{j_0 \ldots j_p})) = \mathcal{I}(f^{-1}(V_{j_0}) \cap \ldots \cap f^{-1}(V_{j_p})) = \mathcal{I}(U_{j_0 \ldots j_p}). $$ Thus the first statement of the lemma follows from Lemma 20.12.1. The second statement follows from the first and Lemma 20.12.8. $\square$

The following lemma implies in particular that $f_* : \textit{Ab}(X) \to \textit{Ab}(Y)$ transforms injective abelian sheaves into injective abelian sheaves.

Lemma 20.12.11. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of ringed spaces. Assume $f$ is flat. Then $f_*\mathcal{I}$ is an injective $\mathcal{O}_Y$-module for any injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module $\mathcal{I}$.

Proof. In this case the functor $f^*$ transforms injections into injections (Modules, Lemma 17.18.2). Hence the result follows from Homology, Lemma 12.25.1. $\square$

Lemma 20.12.12. Let $(X, \mathcal{O}_X)$ be a ringed space. Let $I$ be a set. For $i \in I$ let $\mathcal{F}_i$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Let $U \subset X$ be open. The canonical map $$ H^p(U, \prod\nolimits_{i \in I} \mathcal{F}_i) \longrightarrow \prod\nolimits_{i \in I} H^p(U, \mathcal{F}_i) $$ is an isomorphism for $p = 0$ and injective for $p = 1$.

Proof. The statement for $p = 0$ is true because the product of sheaves is equal to the product of the underlying presheaves, see Sheaves, Section 6.29. Proof for $p = 1$. Set $\mathcal{F} = \prod \mathcal{F}_i$. Let $\xi \in H^1(U, \mathcal{F})$ map to zero in $\prod H^1(U, \mathcal{F}_i)$. By locality of cohomology, see Lemma 20.8.2, there exists an open covering $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup U_j$ such that $\xi|_{U_j} = 0$ for all $j$. By Lemma 20.12.3 this means $\xi$ comes from an element $\check \xi \in \check H^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F})$. Since the maps $\check H^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}_i) \to H^1(U, \mathcal{F}_i)$ are injective for all $i$ (by Lemma 20.12.3), and since the image of $\xi$ is zero in $\prod H^1(U, \mathcal{F}_i)$ we see that the image $\check \xi_i = 0$ in $\check H^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}_i)$. However, since $\mathcal{F} = \prod \mathcal{F}_i$ we see that $\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F})$ is the product of the complexes $\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}_i)$, hence by Homology, Lemma 12.28.1 we conclude that $\check \xi = 0$ as desired. $\square$

    The code snippet corresponding to this tag is a part of the file cohomology.tex and is located in lines 1345–1821 (see updates for more information).

    \section{{\v C}ech cohomology and cohomology}
    \label{section-cech-cohomology-cohomology}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-injective-trivial-cech}
    Let $X$ be a ringed space.
    Let $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be a covering.
    Let $\mathcal{I}$ be an injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
    Then
    $$
    \check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}) =
    \left\{
    \begin{matrix}
    \mathcal{I}(U) & \text{if} & p = 0 \\
    0 & \text{if} & p > 0
    \end{matrix}
    \right.
    $$
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    An injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module is also injective as an object in
    the category $\textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X)$ (for example since
    sheafification is an exact left adjoint to the inclusion functor,
    using Homology, Lemma \ref{homology-lemma-adjoint-preserve-injectives}).
    Hence we can apply Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-cohomology-derived-presheaves}
    (or its proof) to see the result.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-cech-cohomology}
    Let $X$ be a ringed space.
    Let $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be a covering.
    There is a transformation
    $$
    \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, -)
    \longrightarrow
    R\Gamma(U, -)
    $$
    of functors
    $\textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_X) \to D^{+}(\mathcal{O}_X(U))$.
    In particular this provides canonical maps
    $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) \to H^p(U, \mathcal{F})$ for
    $\mathcal{F}$ ranging over $\textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_X)$.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module. Choose an injective resolution
    $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}^\bullet$. Consider the double complex
    $\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^\bullet)$ with terms
    $\check{\mathcal{C}}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^q)$.
    There is a map of complexes
    $$
    \alpha :
    \Gamma(U, \mathcal{I}^\bullet)
    \longrightarrow
    \text{Tot}(\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^\bullet))
    $$
    coming from the maps
    $\mathcal{I}^q(U) \to \check{H}^0(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^q)$
    and a map of complexes
    $$
    \beta :
    \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F})
    \longrightarrow
    \text{Tot}(\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^\bullet))
    $$
    coming from the map $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}^0$.
    We can apply
    Homology, Lemma \ref{homology-lemma-double-complex-gives-resolution}
    to see that $\alpha$ is a quasi-isomorphism.
    Namely, Lemma \ref{lemma-injective-trivial-cech} implies that
    the $q$th row of the double complex
    $\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}^\bullet)$ is a
    resolution of $\Gamma(U, \mathcal{I}^q)$.
    Hence $\alpha$ becomes invertible in $D^{+}(\mathcal{O}_X(U))$ and
    the transformation of the lemma is the composition of $\beta$
    followed by the inverse of $\alpha$. We omit the verification
    that this is functorial.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-cech-h1}
    Let $X$ be a topological space. Let $\mathcal{H}$ be an abelian sheaf
    on $X$. Let $\mathcal{U} : X = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be an open covering.
    The map
    $$
    \check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{H}) \longrightarrow H^1(X, \mathcal{H})
    $$
    is injective and identifies $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{H})$ via
    the bijection of Lemma \ref{lemma-torsors-h1}
    with the set of isomorphism classes of $\mathcal{H}$-torsors
    which restrict to trivial torsors over each $U_i$.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    To see this we construct an inverse map. Namely, let $\mathcal{F}$ be a
    $\mathcal{H}$-torsor whose restriction to $U_i$ is trivial. By
    Lemma \ref{lemma-trivial-torsor} this means there
    exists a section $s_i \in \mathcal{F}(U_i)$. On $U_{i_0} \cap U_{i_1}$
    there is a unique section $s_{i_0i_1}$ of $\mathcal{H}$ such that
    $s_{i_0i_1} \cdot s_{i_0}|_{U_{i_0} \cap U_{i_1}} =
    s_{i_1}|_{U_{i_0} \cap U_{i_1}}$. A computation shows
    that $s_{i_0i_1}$ is a {\v C}ech cocycle and that its class is well
    defined (i.e., does not depend on the choice of the sections $s_i$).
    The inverse maps the isomorphism class of $\mathcal{F}$ to the cohomology
    class of the cocycle $(s_{i_0i_1})$.
    We omit the verification that this map is indeed an inverse.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-include}
    Let $X$ be a ringed space.
    Consider the functor
    $i : \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_X) \to \textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X)$.
    It is a left exact functor with right derived functors given by
    $$
    R^pi(\mathcal{F}) = \underline{H}^p(\mathcal{F}) :
    U \longmapsto H^p(U, \mathcal{F})
    $$
    see discussion in Section \ref{section-locality}.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    It is clear that $i$ is left exact.
    Choose an injective resolution $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}^\bullet$.
    By definition $R^pi$ is the $p$th cohomology {\it presheaf}
    of the complex $\mathcal{I}^\bullet$. In other words, the
    sections of $R^pi(\mathcal{F})$ over an open $U$ are given by
    $$
    \frac{\Ker(\mathcal{I}^n(U) \to \mathcal{I}^{n + 1}(U))}
    {\Im(\mathcal{I}^{n - 1}(U) \to \mathcal{I}^n(U))}.
    $$
    which is the definition of $H^p(U, \mathcal{F})$.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-cech-spectral-sequence}
    Let $X$ be a ringed space.
    Let $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be a covering.
    For any sheaf of $\mathcal{O}_X$-modules $\mathcal{F}$ there
    is a spectral sequence $(E_r, d_r)_{r \geq 0}$ with
    $$
    E_2^{p, q} = \check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \underline{H}^q(\mathcal{F}))
    $$
    converging to $H^{p + q}(U, \mathcal{F})$.
    This spectral sequence is functorial in $\mathcal{F}$.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    This is a Grothendieck spectral sequence
    (see
    Derived Categories, Lemma \ref{derived-lemma-grothendieck-spectral-sequence})
    for the functors
    $$
    i :  \textit{Mod}(\mathcal{O}_X) \to \textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X)
    \quad\text{and}\quad
    \check{H}^0(\mathcal{U}, - ) : \textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X)
    \to \text{Mod}_{\mathcal{O}_X(U)}.
    $$
    Namely, we have $\check{H}^0(\mathcal{U}, i(\mathcal{F})) = \mathcal{F}(U)$
    by Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-h0}. We have that $i(\mathcal{I})$ is
    {\v C}ech acyclic by Lemma \ref{lemma-injective-trivial-cech}. And we
    have that $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, -) = R^p\check{H}^0(\mathcal{U}, -)$
    as functors on $\textit{PMod}(\mathcal{O}_X)$
    by Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-cohomology-derived-presheaves}.
    Putting everything together gives the lemma.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-cech-spectral-sequence-application}
    Let $X$ be a ringed space.
    Let $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ be a covering.
    Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
    Assume that $H^i(U_{i_0 \ldots i_p}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$
    for all $i > 0$, all $p \geq 0$ and all $i_0, \ldots, i_p \in I$.
    Then $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = H^p(U, \mathcal{F})$
    as $\mathcal{O}_X(U)$-modules.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    We will use the spectral sequence of
    Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-spectral-sequence}.
    The assumptions mean that $E_2^{p, q} = 0$ for all $(p, q)$ with
    $q \not = 0$. Hence the spectral sequence degenerates at $E_2$
    and the result follows.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-ses-cech-h1}
    Let $X$ be a ringed space.
    Let
    $$
    0 \to \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{G} \to \mathcal{H} \to 0
    $$
    be a short exact sequence of $\mathcal{O}_X$-modules.
    Let $U \subset X$ be an open subset.
    If there exists a cofinal system of open coverings $\mathcal{U}$
    of $U$ such that $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$,
    then the map $\mathcal{G}(U) \to \mathcal{H}(U)$ is
    surjective.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    Take an element $s \in \mathcal{H}(U)$. Choose an open covering
    $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ such that
    (a) $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ and (b)
    $s|_{U_i}$ is the image of a section $s_i \in \mathcal{G}(U_i)$.
    Since we can certainly find a covering such that (b) holds
    it follows from the assumptions of the lemma that we can find
    a covering such that (a) and (b) both hold.
    Consider the sections
    $$
    s_{i_0i_1} = s_{i_1}|_{U_{i_0i_1}} - s_{i_0}|_{U_{i_0i_1}}.
    $$
    Since $s_i$ lifts $s$ we see that $s_{i_0i_1} \in \mathcal{F}(U_{i_0i_1})$.
    By the vanishing of $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F})$ we can
    find sections $t_i \in \mathcal{F}(U_i)$ such that
    $$
    s_{i_0i_1} = t_{i_1}|_{U_{i_0i_1}} - t_{i_0}|_{U_{i_0i_1}}.
    $$
    Then clearly the sections $s_i - t_i$ satisfy the sheaf condition
    and glue to a section of $\mathcal{G}$ over $U$ which maps to $s$.
    Hence we win.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-cech-vanish}
    \begin{slogan}
    If higher {\v C}ech cohomology of an abelian sheaf vanishes for all open covers,
    then higher cohomology vanishes.
    \end{slogan}
    Let $X$ be a ringed space.
    Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module such that
    $$
    \check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0
    $$
    for all $p > 0$ and any open covering $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$
    of an open of $X$. Then $H^p(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$
    and any open $U \subset X$.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a sheaf satisfying the assumption of the lemma.
    We will indicate this by saying ``$\mathcal{F}$ has vanishing higher
    {\v C}ech cohomology for any open covering''.
    Choose an embedding $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}$ into an
    injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
    By Lemma \ref{lemma-injective-trivial-cech} $\mathcal{I}$ has vanishing higher
    {\v C}ech cohomology for any open covering.
    Let $\mathcal{Q} = \mathcal{I}/\mathcal{F}$
    so that we have a short exact sequence
    $$
    0 \to \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{Q} \to 0.
    $$
    By Lemma \ref{lemma-ses-cech-h1} and our assumptions
    this sequence is actually exact as a sequence of presheaves!
    In particular we have a long exact sequence of {\v C}ech cohomology
    groups for any open covering $\mathcal{U}$, see
    Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-cohomology-delta-functor-presheaves}
    for example. This implies that $\mathcal{Q}$ is also an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module
    with vanishing higher {\v C}ech cohomology for all open coverings.
    
    \medskip\noindent
    Next, we look at the long exact cohomology sequence
    $$
    \xymatrix{
    0 \ar[r] &
    H^0(U, \mathcal{F}) \ar[r] &
    H^0(U, \mathcal{I}) \ar[r] &
    H^0(U, \mathcal{Q}) \ar[lld] \\
    &
    H^1(U, \mathcal{F}) \ar[r] &
    H^1(U, \mathcal{I}) \ar[r] &
    H^1(U, \mathcal{Q}) \ar[lld] \\
    &
    \ldots & \ldots & \ldots \\
    }
    $$
    for any open $U \subset X$. Since $\mathcal{I}$ is injective we
    have $H^n(U, \mathcal{I}) = 0$ for $n > 0$ (see
    Derived Categories, Lemma \ref{derived-lemma-higher-derived-functors}).
    By the above we see that $H^0(U, \mathcal{I}) \to H^0(U, \mathcal{Q})$
    is surjective and hence $H^1(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$.
    Since $\mathcal{F}$ was an arbitrary $\mathcal{O}_X$-module with
    vanishing higher {\v C}ech cohomology we conclude that also
    $H^1(U, \mathcal{Q}) = 0$ since $\mathcal{Q}$ is another of these
    sheaves (see above). By the long exact sequence this in turn implies
    that $H^2(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$. And so on and so forth.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-cech-vanish-basis}
    (Variant of Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-vanish}.)
    Let $X$ be a ringed space.
    Let $\mathcal{B}$ be a basis for the topology on $X$.
    Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
    Assume there exists a set of open coverings $\text{Cov}$
    with the following properties:
    \begin{enumerate}
    \item For every $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$
    with $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup_{i \in I} U_i$ we have
    $U, U_i \in \mathcal{B}$ and every $U_{i_0 \ldots i_p} \in \mathcal{B}$.
    \item For every $U \in \mathcal{B}$ the open coverings of $U$
    occurring in $\text{Cov}$ is a cofinal system of open coverings
    of $U$.
    \item For every $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$ we have
    $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$.
    \end{enumerate}
    Then $H^p(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and any $U \in \mathcal{B}$.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    Let $\mathcal{F}$ and $\text{Cov}$ be as in the lemma.
    We will indicate this by saying ``$\mathcal{F}$ has vanishing higher
    {\v C}ech cohomology for any $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$''.
    Choose an embedding $\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I}$ into an
    injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
    By Lemma \ref{lemma-injective-trivial-cech} $\mathcal{I}$
    has vanishing higher {\v C}ech cohomology for any $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$.
    Let $\mathcal{Q} = \mathcal{I}/\mathcal{F}$
    so that we have a short exact sequence
    $$
    0 \to \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{Q} \to 0.
    $$
    By Lemma \ref{lemma-ses-cech-h1} and our assumption (2)
    this sequence gives rise to an exact sequence
    $$
    0 \to \mathcal{F}(U) \to \mathcal{I}(U) \to \mathcal{Q}(U) \to 0.
    $$
    for every $U \in \mathcal{B}$. Hence for any $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$
    we get a short exact sequence of {\v C}ech complexes
    $$
    0 \to
    \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) \to
    \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}) \to
    \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{Q}) \to 0
    $$
    since each term in the {\v C}ech complex is made up out of a product of
    values over elements of $\mathcal{B}$ by assumption (1).
    In particular we have a long exact sequence of {\v C}ech cohomology
    groups for any open covering $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$.
    This implies that $\mathcal{Q}$ is also an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module
    with vanishing higher {\v C}ech cohomology for all
    $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$.
    
    \medskip\noindent
    Next, we look at the long exact cohomology sequence
    $$
    \xymatrix{
    0 \ar[r] &
    H^0(U, \mathcal{F}) \ar[r] &
    H^0(U, \mathcal{I}) \ar[r] &
    H^0(U, \mathcal{Q}) \ar[lld] \\
    &
    H^1(U, \mathcal{F}) \ar[r] &
    H^1(U, \mathcal{I}) \ar[r] &
    H^1(U, \mathcal{Q}) \ar[lld] \\
    &
    \ldots & \ldots & \ldots \\
    }
    $$
    for any $U \in \mathcal{B}$. Since $\mathcal{I}$ is injective we
    have $H^n(U, \mathcal{I}) = 0$ for $n > 0$ (see
    Derived Categories, Lemma \ref{derived-lemma-higher-derived-functors}).
    By the above we see that $H^0(U, \mathcal{I}) \to H^0(U, \mathcal{Q})$
    is surjective and hence $H^1(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$.
    Since $\mathcal{F}$ was an arbitrary $\mathcal{O}_X$-module with
    vanishing higher {\v C}ech cohomology for all $\mathcal{U} \in \text{Cov}$
    we conclude that also $H^1(U, \mathcal{Q}) = 0$ since $\mathcal{Q}$ is
    another of these sheaves (see above). By the long exact sequence this in
    turn implies that $H^2(U, \mathcal{F}) = 0$. And so on and so forth.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-pushforward-injective}
    Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of ringed spaces.
    Let $\mathcal{I}$ be an injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
    Then
    \begin{enumerate}
    \item $\check{H}^p(\mathcal{V}, f_*\mathcal{I}) = 0$
    for all $p > 0$ and any open covering
    $\mathcal{V} : V = \bigcup_{j \in J} V_j$ of $Y$.
    \item $H^p(V, f_*\mathcal{I}) = 0$ for all $p > 0$ and
    every open $V \subset Y$.
    \end{enumerate}
    In other words, $f_*\mathcal{I}$ is right acyclic for $\Gamma(V, -)$
    (see
    Derived Categories, Definition \ref{derived-definition-derived-functor})
    for any $V \subset Y$ open.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    Set $\mathcal{U} : f^{-1}(V) = \bigcup_{j \in J} f^{-1}(V_j)$.
    It is an open covering of $X$ and
    $$
    \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{V}, f_*\mathcal{I}) =
    \check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{I}).
    $$
    This is true because
    $$
    f_*\mathcal{I}(V_{j_0 \ldots j_p})
    = \mathcal{I}(f^{-1}(V_{j_0 \ldots j_p})) =
    \mathcal{I}(f^{-1}(V_{j_0}) \cap \ldots \cap f^{-1}(V_{j_p}))
    = \mathcal{I}(U_{j_0 \ldots j_p}).
    $$
    Thus the first statement of the lemma follows from
    Lemma \ref{lemma-injective-trivial-cech}. The second statement
    follows from the first and Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-vanish}.
    \end{proof}
    
    \noindent
    The following lemma implies in particular that
    $f_* : \textit{Ab}(X) \to \textit{Ab}(Y)$ transforms injective
    abelian sheaves into injective abelian sheaves.
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-pushforward-injective-flat}
    Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of ringed spaces.
    Assume $f$ is flat.
    Then $f_*\mathcal{I}$ is an injective $\mathcal{O}_Y$-module
    for any injective $\mathcal{O}_X$-module $\mathcal{I}$.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    In this case the functor $f^*$ transforms injections into injections
    (Modules, Lemma \ref{modules-lemma-pullback-flat}).
    Hence the result follows from
    Homology, Lemma \ref{homology-lemma-adjoint-preserve-injectives}.
    \end{proof}
    
    \begin{lemma}
    \label{lemma-cohomology-products}
    Let $(X, \mathcal{O}_X)$ be a ringed space. Let $I$ be a set.
    For $i \in I$ let  $\mathcal{F}_i$ be an $\mathcal{O}_X$-module.
    Let $U \subset X$ be open. The canonical map
    $$
    H^p(U, \prod\nolimits_{i \in I} \mathcal{F}_i)
    \longrightarrow
    \prod\nolimits_{i \in I} H^p(U, \mathcal{F}_i)
    $$
    is an isomorphism for $p = 0$ and injective for $p = 1$.
    \end{lemma}
    
    \begin{proof}
    The statement for $p = 0$ is true because the product of sheaves
    is equal to the product of the underlying presheaves, see
    Sheaves, Section \ref{sheaves-section-limits-sheaves}.
    Proof for $p = 1$. Set $\mathcal{F} = \prod \mathcal{F}_i$.
    Let $\xi \in H^1(U, \mathcal{F})$ map to zero in
    $\prod H^1(U, \mathcal{F}_i)$. By locality of cohomology, see
    Lemma \ref{lemma-kill-cohomology-class-on-covering},
    there exists an open covering $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup U_j$ such that
    $\xi|_{U_j} = 0$ for all $j$. By Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-h1} this means
    $\xi$ comes from an element
    $\check \xi \in \check H^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F})$.
    Since the maps
    $\check H^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}_i) \to H^1(U, \mathcal{F}_i)$
    are injective for all $i$ (by Lemma \ref{lemma-cech-h1}), and since
    the image of $\xi$ is zero in $\prod H^1(U, \mathcal{F}_i)$ we see
    that the image
    $\check \xi_i = 0$ in $\check H^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}_i)$.
    However, since $\mathcal{F} = \prod \mathcal{F}_i$ we see that
    $\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F})$ is the
    product of the complexes
    $\check{\mathcal{C}}^\bullet(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}_i)$,
    hence by
    Homology, Lemma \ref{homology-lemma-product-abelian-groups-exact}
    we conclude that $\check \xi = 0$ as desired.
    \end{proof}

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