Lemma 18.15.1. Let $f : \mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{C}) \to \mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{D})$ be a morphism of topoi. The following are equivalent:

$f^{-1}f_*\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{F}$ is surjective for all $\mathcal{F}$ in $\textit{Ab}(\mathcal{C})$, and

$f_* : \textit{Ab}(\mathcal{C}) \to \textit{Ab}(\mathcal{D})$ reflects surjections.

In this case the functor $f_* : \textit{Ab}(\mathcal{C}) \to \textit{Ab}(\mathcal{D})$ is faithful.

**Proof.**
Assume (1). Suppose that $a : \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{F}'$ is a map of abelian sheaves on $\mathcal{C}$ such that $f_*a$ is surjective. As $f^{-1}$ is exact this implies that $f^{-1}f_*a : f^{-1}f_*\mathcal{F} \to f^{-1}f_*\mathcal{F}'$ is surjective. Combined with (1) this implies that $a$ is surjective. This means that (2) holds.

Assume (2). Let $\mathcal{F}$ be an abelian sheaf on $\mathcal{C}$. We have to show that the map $f^{-1}f_*\mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{F}$ is surjective. By (2) it suffices to show that $f_*f^{-1}f_*\mathcal{F} \to f_*\mathcal{F}$ is surjective. And this is true because there is a canonical map $f_*\mathcal{F} \to f_*f^{-1}f_*\mathcal{F}$ which is a one-sided inverse.

We omit the proof of the final assertion.
$\square$

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