** A flat module is faithfully flat if and only if it has nonzero fibers. **

Lemma 10.39.15. Let $M$ be a flat $R$-module. The following are equivalent:

$M$ is faithfully flat,

for every nonzero $R$-module $N$, then tensor product $M \otimes _ R N$ is nonzero,

for all $\mathfrak p \in \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)$ the tensor product $M \otimes _ R \kappa (\mathfrak p)$ is nonzero, and

for all maximal ideals $\mathfrak m$ of $R$ the tensor product $M \otimes _ R \kappa (\mathfrak m) = M/{\mathfrak m}M$ is nonzero.

**Proof.**
Assume $M$ faithfully flat and $N \not= 0$. By Lemma 10.39.14 the nonzero map $1 : N \to N$ induces a nonzero map $M \otimes _ R N \to M \otimes _ R N$, so $M \otimes _ R N \not= 0$. Thus (1) implies (2). The implications (2) $\Rightarrow $ (3) $\Rightarrow $ (4) are immediate.

Assume (4). Suppose that $N_1 \to N_2 \to N_3$ is a complex and suppose that $N_1 \otimes _ R M \to N_2\otimes _ R M \to N_3\otimes _ R M$ is exact. Let $H$ be the cohomology of the complex, so $H = \mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(N_2 \to N_3)/\mathop{\mathrm{Im}}(N_1 \to N_2)$. To finish the proof we will show $H = 0$. By flatness we see that $H \otimes _ R M = 0$. Take $x \in H$ and let $I = \{ f \in R \mid fx = 0 \} $ be its annihilator. Since $R/I \subset H$ we get $M/IM \subset H \otimes _ R M = 0$ by flatness of $M$. If $I \not= R$ we may choose a maximal ideal $I \subset \mathfrak m \subset R$. This immediately gives a contradiction.
$\square$

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