Lemma 10.5.4. Let $R$ be a ring, and let $M$ be a finite $R$-module. There exists a filtration by finite $R$-submodules

such that each quotient $M_ i/M_{i - 1}$ is isomorphic to $R/I_ i$ for some ideal $I_ i$ of $R$.

** Finite modules have filtrations such that successive quotients are cyclic modules. **

Lemma 10.5.4. Let $R$ be a ring, and let $M$ be a finite $R$-module. There exists a filtration by finite $R$-submodules

\[ 0 = M_0 \subset M_1 \subset \ldots \subset M_ n = M \]

such that each quotient $M_ i/M_{i - 1}$ is isomorphic to $R/I_ i$ for some ideal $I_ i$ of $R$.

**Proof.**
By induction on the number of generators of $M$. Let $x_1, \ldots , x_ r \in M$ be generators. Let $M' = Rx_1 \subset M$. Then $M/M'$ has $r - 1$ generators and the induction hypothesis applies. And clearly $M' \cong R/I_1$ with $I_1 = \{ f \in R \mid fx_1 = 0\} $.
$\square$

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