Lemma 20.11.7. Let $X$ be a ringed space. Let

\[ 0 \to \mathcal{F} \to \mathcal{G} \to \mathcal{H} \to 0 \]

be a short exact sequence of $\mathcal{O}_ X$-modules. Let $U \subset X$ be an open subset. If there exists a cofinal system of open coverings $\mathcal{U}$ of $U$ such that $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$, then the map $\mathcal{G}(U) \to \mathcal{H}(U)$ is surjective.

**Proof.**
Take an element $s \in \mathcal{H}(U)$. Choose an open covering $\mathcal{U} : U = \bigcup _{i \in I} U_ i$ such that (a) $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F}) = 0$ and (b) $s|_{U_ i}$ is the image of a section $s_ i \in \mathcal{G}(U_ i)$. Since we can certainly find $\mathcal{U}$ such that (b) holds it follows from the assumptions of the lemma that we can find $\mathcal{U}$ such that (a) and (b) both hold. Consider the sections

\[ s_{i_0i_1} = s_{i_1}|_{U_{i_0i_1}} - s_{i_0}|_{U_{i_0i_1}}. \]

Since $s_ i$ lifts $s$ we see that $s_{i_0i_1} \in \mathcal{F}(U_{i_0i_1})$. By the vanishing of $\check{H}^1(\mathcal{U}, \mathcal{F})$ we can find sections $t_ i \in \mathcal{F}(U_ i)$ such that

\[ s_{i_0i_1} = t_{i_1}|_{U_{i_0i_1}} - t_{i_0}|_{U_{i_0i_1}}. \]

Then clearly the sections $s_ i - t_ i$ satisfy the sheaf condition and glue to a section of $\mathcal{G}$ over $U$ which maps to $s$. Hence we win.
$\square$

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