Lemma 26.13.1. Let $X$ be a scheme. Let $R$ be a local ring. The construction above gives a bijective correspondence between morphisms $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R) \to X$ and pairs $(x, \varphi )$ consisting of a point $x \in X$ and a local homomorphism of local rings $\varphi : \mathcal{O}_{X, x} \to R$.

Proof. Let $A$ be a ring. For any ring homomorphism $\psi : A \to R$ there exists a unique prime ideal $\mathfrak p \subset A$ and a factorization $A \to A_{\mathfrak p} \to R$ where the last map is a local homomorphism of local rings. Namely, $\mathfrak p = \psi ^{-1}(\mathfrak m)$. Via Lemma 26.6.4 this proves that the lemma holds if $X$ is an affine scheme.

Let $X$ be a general scheme. Any $x \in X$ is contained in an open affine $U \subset X$. By the affine case we conclude that every pair $(x, \varphi )$ occurs as the end product of the construction above the lemma.

To finish the proof it suffices to show that any morphism $f : \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R) \to X$ has image contained in any affine open containing the image $x$ of the closed point of $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)$. In fact, let $x \in V \subset X$ be any open neighbourhood containing $x$. Then $f^{-1}(V) \subset \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)$ is an open containing the unique closed point and hence equal to $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)$. $\square$

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