Lemma 33.7.7. Let $k$ be a field. Let $X$ be a scheme over $k$. Let $\overline{k}$ be a separable algebraic closure of $k$. Then $X$ is geometrically connected if and only if the base change $X_{\overline{k}}$ is connected.

Proof. Assume $X_{\overline{k}}$ is connected. Let $k'/k$ be a field extension. There exists a field extension $\overline{k}'/\overline{k}$ such that $k'$ embeds into $\overline{k}'$ as an extension of $k$. By Lemma 33.7.6 we see that $X_{\overline{k}'}$ is connected. Since $X_{\overline{k}'} \to X_{k'}$ is surjective we conclude that $X_{k'}$ is connected as desired. $\square$

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