Lemma 15.22.10. Let $A$ be a valuation ring. An $A$-module $M$ is flat over $A$ if and only if $M$ is torsion free.

**Proof.**
The implication “flat $\Rightarrow $ torsion free” is Lemma 15.22.9. For the converse, assume $M$ is torsion free. By the equational criterion of flatness (see Algebra, Lemma 10.39.11) we have to show that every relation in $M$ is trivial. To do this assume that $\sum _{i = 1, \ldots , n} a_ i x_ i = 0$ with $x_ i \in M$ and $a_ i \in A$. After renumbering we may assume that $v(a_1) \leq v(a_ i)$ for all $i$. Hence we can write $a_ i = a'_ i a_1$ for some $a'_ i \in A$. Note that $a'_1 = 1$. As $M$ is torsion free we see that $x_1 = - \sum _{i \geq 2} a'_ i x_ i$. Thus, if we choose $y_ i = x_ i$, $i = 2, \ldots , n$ then

shows that the relation was trivial (to be explicit the elements $a_{ij}$ are defined by setting $a_{11} = 0$, $a_{1j} = -a'_ j$ for $j > 1$, and $a_{ij} = \delta _{ij}$ for $i, j \geq 2$). $\square$

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