Lemma 33.18.3. Let $f : X \to S$ be a morphism of schemes. Let $x \in X$. Let $V = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)$ be an affine open neighbourhood of $f(x)$ in $S$. If $f$ is unramified at $x$, then there exist exists an affine open $U \subset X$ with $x \in U$ and $f(U) \subset V$ such that we have a commutative diagram

where $j$ is an immersion, $g \in A[t]$ is a monic polynomial, and $g'$ is the derivative of $g$ with respect to $t$. If $f$ is étale at $x$, then we may choose the diagram such that $j$ is an open immersion.

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