Lemma 10.98.1. Suppose that $R \to S$ is a local homomorphism of Noetherian local rings. Denote $\mathfrak m$ the maximal ideal of $R$. Let $M$ be a flat $R$-module and $N$ a finite $S$-module. Let $u : N \to M$ be a map of $R$-modules. If $\overline{u} : N/\mathfrak m N \to M/\mathfrak m M$ is injective then $u$ is injective. In this case $M/u(N)$ is flat over $R$.

**Proof.**
First we claim that $u_ n : N/{\mathfrak m}^ nN \to M/{\mathfrak m}^ nM$ is injective for all $n \geq 1$. We proceed by induction, the base case is that $\overline{u} = u_1$ is injective. By our assumption that $M$ is flat over $R$ we have a short exact sequence $0 \to M \otimes _ R {\mathfrak m}^ n/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1} \to M/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1}M \to M/{\mathfrak m}^ n M \to 0$. Also, $M \otimes _ R {\mathfrak m}^ n/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1} = M/{\mathfrak m}M \otimes _{R/{\mathfrak m}} {\mathfrak m}^ n/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1}$. We have a similar exact sequence $N \otimes _ R {\mathfrak m}^ n/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1} \to N/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1}N \to N/{\mathfrak m}^ n N \to 0$ for $N$ except we do not have the zero on the left. We also have $N \otimes _ R {\mathfrak m}^ n/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1} = N/{\mathfrak m}N \otimes _{R/{\mathfrak m}} {\mathfrak m}^ n/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1}$. Thus the map $u_{n + 1}$ is injective as both $u_ n$ and the map $\overline{u} \otimes \text{id}_{{\mathfrak m}^ n/{\mathfrak m}^{n + 1}}$ are.

By Krull's intersection theorem (Lemma 10.50.4) applied to $N$ over the ring $S$ and the ideal $\mathfrak mS$ we have $\bigcap \mathfrak m^ nN = 0$. Thus the injectivity of $u_ n$ for all $n$ implies $u$ is injective.

To show that $M/u(N)$ is flat over $R$, it suffices to show that $I \otimes _ R M/u(N) \to M/u(N)$ is injective for every ideal $I \subset R$, see Lemma 10.38.5. Consider the diagram

The arrow $M \otimes _ R I \to M$ is injective. By the snake lemma (Lemma 10.4.1) we see that it suffices to prove that $N/IN$ injects into $M/IM$. Note that $R/I \to S/IS$ is a local homomorphism of Noetherian local rings, $N/IN \to M/IM$ is a map of $R/I$-modules, $N/IN$ is finite over $S/IS$, and $M/IM$ is flat over $R/I$ and $u \bmod I : N/IN \to M/IM$ is injective modulo $\mathfrak m$. Thus we may apply the first part of the proof to $u \bmod I$ and we conclude. $\square$

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## Comments (1)

Comment #3817 by Alapan Mukhopadhyay on