The Stacks project

Lemma 10.131.14. If $S = R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n]$, then $\Omega _{S/R}$ is a finite free $S$-module with basis $\text{d}x_1, \ldots , \text{d}x_ n$.

Proof. We first show that $\text{d}x_1, \ldots , \text{d}x_ n$ generate $\Omega _{S/R}$ as an $S$-module. To prove this we show that $\text{d}g$ can be expressed as a sum $\sum g_ i \text{d}x_ i$ for any $g \in R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n]$. We do this by induction on the (total) degree of $g$. It is clear if the degree of $g$ is $0$, because then $\text{d}g = 0$. If the degree of $g$ is $> 0$, then we may write $g$ as $c + \sum g_ i x_ i$ with $c\in R$ and $\deg (g_ i) < \deg (g)$. By the Leibniz rule we have $\text{d}g = \sum g_ i \text{d} x_ i + \sum x_ i \text{d}g_ i$, and hence we win by induction.

Consider the $R$-derivation $\partial / \partial x_ i : R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n] \to R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n]$. (We leave it to the reader to define this; the defining property being that $\partial / \partial x_ i (x_ j) = \delta _{ij}$.) By the universal property this corresponds to an $S$-module map $l_ i : \Omega _{S/R} \to R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n]$ which maps $\text{d}x_ i$ to $1$ and $\text{d}x_ j$ to $0$ for $j \not= i$. Thus it is clear that there are no $S$-linear relations among the elements $\text{d}x_1, \ldots , \text{d}x_ n$. $\square$

Comments (1)

Comment #1087 by Nuno Cardoso on

Leibniz is spelled wrong as "Leibnize". There are also two more instances of this wrong spelling in Tags 60.12 and 90.4.6.

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  • 12 comment(s) on Section 10.131: Differentials

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