Definition 26.18.1. Let $S$ be a scheme.

1. We say $X$ is a scheme over $S$ to mean that $X$ comes equipped with a morphism of schemes $X \to S$. The morphism $X \to S$ is sometimes called the structure morphism.

2. If $R$ is a ring we say $X$ is a scheme over $R$ instead of $X$ is a scheme over $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)$.

3. A morphism $f : X \to Y$ of schemes over $S$ is a morphism of schemes such that the composition $X \to Y \to S$ of $f$ with the structure morphism of $Y$ is equal to the structure morphism of $X$.

4. We denote $\mathop{\mathrm{Mor}}\nolimits _ S(X, Y)$ the set of all morphisms from $X$ to $Y$ over $S$.

5. Let $X$ be a scheme over $S$. Let $S' \to S$ be a morphism of schemes. The base change of $X$ is the scheme $X_{S'} = S' \times _ S X$ over $S'$.

6. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of schemes over $S$. Let $S' \to S$ be a morphism of schemes. The base change of $f$ is the induced morphism $f' : X_{S'} \to Y_{S'}$ (namely the morphism $\text{id}_{S'} \times _{\text{id}_ S} f$).

7. Let $R$ be a ring. Let $X$ be a scheme over $R$. Let $R \to R'$ be a ring map. The base change $X_{R'}$ is the scheme $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R') \times _{\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)} X$ over $R'$.

Comment #207 by Rex on

Typo: "namely the morphsm"

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