Lemma 79.3.6. Let $S$ be a scheme contained in $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$. Let $F, G : (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}^{opp} \to \textit{Sets}$. Let $a : F \to G$ be representable by algebraic spaces. If $G$ is an algebraic space, then so is $F$.

Proof. We have seen in Lemma 79.3.4 that $F$ is a sheaf.

Let $U$ be a scheme and let $U \to G$ be a surjective étale morphism. In this case $U \times _ G F$ is an algebraic space. Let $W$ be a scheme and let $W \to U \times _ G F$ be a surjective étale morphism.

First we claim that $W \to F$ is representable. To see this let $X$ be a scheme and let $X \to F$ be a morphism. Then

$W \times _ F X = W \times _{U \times _ G F} U \times _ G F \times _ F X = W \times _{U \times _ G F} (U \times _ G X)$

Since both $U \times _ G F$ and $G$ are algebraic spaces we see that this is a scheme.

Next, we claim that $W \to F$ is surjective and étale (this makes sense now that we know it is representable). This follows from the formula above since both $W \to U \times _ G F$ and $U \to G$ are étale and surjective, hence $W \times _{U \times _ G F} (U \times _ G X) \to U \times _ G X$ and $U \times _ G X \to X$ are surjective and étale, and the composition of surjective étale morphisms is surjective and étale.

Set $R = W \times _ F W$. By the above $R$ is a scheme and the projections $t, s : R \to W$ are étale. It is clear that $R$ is an equivalence relation, and $W \to F$ is a surjection of sheaves. Hence $R$ is an étale equivalence relation and $F = W/R$. Hence $F$ is an algebraic space by Spaces, Theorem 64.10.5. $\square$

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