## 18.6 Ringed sites

In this chapter we mainly work with sheaves of modules on a ringed site. Hence we need to define this notion.

Definition 18.6.1. Ringed sites.

A *ringed site* is a pair $(\mathcal{C}, \mathcal{O})$ where $\mathcal{C}$ is a site and $\mathcal{O}$ is a sheaf of rings on $\mathcal{C}$. The sheaf $\mathcal{O}$ is called the *structure sheaf* of the ringed site.

Let $(\mathcal{C}, \mathcal{O})$, $(\mathcal{C}', \mathcal{O}')$ be ringed sites. A *morphism of ringed sites*

\[ (f, f^\sharp ) : (\mathcal{C}, \mathcal{O}) \longrightarrow (\mathcal{C}', \mathcal{O}') \]

is given by a morphism of sites $f : \mathcal{C} \to \mathcal{C}'$ (see Sites, Definition 7.14.1) together with a map of sheaves of rings $f^\sharp : f^{-1}\mathcal{O}' \to \mathcal{O}$, which by adjunction is the same thing as a map of sheaves of rings $f^\sharp : \mathcal{O}' \to f_*\mathcal{O}$.

Let $(f, f^\sharp ) : (\mathcal{C}_1, \mathcal{O}_1) \to (\mathcal{C}_2, \mathcal{O}_2)$ and $(g, g^\sharp ) : (\mathcal{C}_2, \mathcal{O}_2) \to (\mathcal{C}_3, \mathcal{O}_3)$ be morphisms of ringed sites. Then we define the *composition of morphisms of ringed sites* by the rule

\[ (g, g^\sharp ) \circ (f, f^\sharp ) = (g \circ f, f^\sharp \circ g^\sharp ). \]

Here we use composition of morphisms of sites defined in Sites, Definition 7.14.5 and $f^\sharp \circ g^\sharp $ indicates the morphism of sheaves of rings

\[ \mathcal{O}_3 \xrightarrow {g^\sharp } g_*\mathcal{O}_2 \xrightarrow {g_*f^\sharp } g_*f_*\mathcal{O}_1 = (g \circ f)_*\mathcal{O}_1 \]

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