Lemma 99.25.4. Let $f : \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{Y}$ be a morphism of algebraic stacks. Let $\mathcal{Z} \to \mathcal{Y}$ be a surjective flat morphism of algebraic stacks. If the base change $\mathcal{Z} \times _\mathcal {Y} \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{Z}$ is flat, then $f$ is flat.

**Proof.**
Choose an algebraic space $W$ and a surjective smooth morphism $W \to \mathcal{Z}$. Then $W \to \mathcal{Z}$ is surjective and flat (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 65.37.7) hence $W \to \mathcal{Y}$ is surjective and flat (by Properties of Stacks, Lemma 98.5.2 and Lemma 99.25.2). Since the base change of $\mathcal{Z} \times _\mathcal {Y} \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{Z}$ by $W \to \mathcal{Z}$ is a flat morphism (Lemma 99.25.3) we may replace $\mathcal{Z}$ by $W$.

Choose an algebraic space $V$ and a surjective smooth morphism $V \to \mathcal{Y}$. Choose an algebraic space $U$ and a surjective smooth morphism $U \to V \times _\mathcal {Y} \mathcal{X}$. We have to show that $U \to V$ is flat. Now we base change everything by $W \to \mathcal{Y}$: Set $U' = W \times _\mathcal {Y} U$, $V' = W \times _\mathcal {Y} V$, $\mathcal{X}' = W \times _\mathcal {Y} \mathcal{X}$, and $\mathcal{Y}' = W \times _\mathcal {Y} \mathcal{Y} = W$. Then it is still true that $U' \to V' \times _{\mathcal{Y}'} \mathcal{X}'$ is smooth by base change. Hence by our definition of flat morphisms of algebraic stacks and the assumption that $\mathcal{X}' \to \mathcal{Y}'$ is flat, we see that $U' \to V'$ is flat. Then, since $V' \to V$ is surjective as a base change of $W \to \mathcal{Y}$ we see that $U \to V$ is flat by Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 65.31.3 (2) and we win. $\square$

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