Example 23.2.3. Let $p$ be a prime number. Let $A$ be a ring such that every integer $n$ not divisible by $p$ is invertible, i.e., $A$ is a $\mathbf{Z}_{(p)}$-algebra. Then $I = pA$ has a canonical divided power structure. Namely, given $x = pa \in I$ we set

The reader verifies immediately that $p^ n/n! \in p\mathbf{Z}_{(p)}$ for $n \geq 1$ (for instance, this can be derived from the fact that the exponent of $p$ in the prime factorization of $n!$ is $\left\lfloor n/p \right\rfloor + \left\lfloor n/p^2 \right\rfloor + \left\lfloor n/p^3 \right\rfloor + \ldots $), so that the definition makes sense and gives us a sequence of maps $\gamma _ n : I \to I$. It is a straightforward exercise to verify that conditions (1) – (5) of Definition 23.2.1 are satisfied. Alternatively, it is clear that the definition works for $A_0 = \mathbf{Z}_{(p)}$ and then the result follows from Lemma 23.4.2.

## Comments (0)