## Tag `07XM`

Chapter 89: Artin's axioms > Section 89.11: Limit preserving

Lemma 89.11.2. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $p : \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{Y}$ and $q : \mathcal{Z} \to \mathcal{Y}$ be $1$-morphisms of categories fibred in groupoids over $(\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$.

- If $\mathcal{X} \to (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ and $\mathcal{Z} \to (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ are limit preserving on objects and $\mathcal{Y}$ is limit preserving, then $\mathcal{X} \times_\mathcal{Y} \mathcal{Z} \to (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ is limit preserving on objects.
- If $\mathcal{X}$, $\mathcal{Y}$, and $\mathcal{Z}$ are limit preserving, then so is $\mathcal{X} \times_\mathcal{Y} \mathcal{Z}$.

Proof.This is formal. Proof of (1). Let $T = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits_{i \in I} T_i$ be the directed limit of affine schemes $T_i$ over $S$. We will prove that the functor $\mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits \mathcal{X}_{T_i} \to \mathcal{X}_T$ is essentially surjective. Recall that an object of the fibre product over $T$ is a quadruple $(T, x, z, \alpha)$ where $x$ is an object of $\mathcal{X}$ lying over $T$, $z$ is an object of $\mathcal{Z}$ lying over $T$, and $\alpha : p(x) \to q(z)$ is a morphism in the fibre category of $\mathcal{Y}$ over $T$. By assumption on $\mathcal{X}$ and $\mathcal{Z}$ we can find an $i$ and objects $x_i$ and $z_i$ over $T_i$ such that $x_i|_T \cong T$ and $z_i|_T \cong z$. Then $\alpha$ corresponds to an isomorphism $p(x_i)|_T \to q(z_i)|_T$ which comes from an isomorphism $\alpha_{i'} : p(x_i)|_{T_{i'}} \to q(z_i)|_{T_{i'}}$ by our assumption on $\mathcal{Y}$. After replacing $i$ by $i'$, $x_i$ by $x_i|_{T_{i'}}$, and $z_i$ by $z_i|_{T_{i'}}$ we see that $(T_i, x_i, z_i, \alpha_i)$ is an object of the fibre product over $T_i$ which restricts to an object isomorphic to $(T, x, z, \alpha)$ over $T$ as desired.We omit the arguments showing that $\mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits \mathcal{X}_{T_i} \to \mathcal{X}_T$ is fully faithful in (2). $\square$

The code snippet corresponding to this tag is a part of the file `artin.tex` and is located in lines 1334–1349 (see updates for more information).

```
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-fibre-product-limit-preserving}
Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $p : \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{Y}$ and
$q : \mathcal{Z} \to \mathcal{Y}$ be $1$-morphisms of categories
fibred in groupoids over $(\Sch/S)_{fppf}$.
\begin{enumerate}
\item If $\mathcal{X} \to (\Sch/S)_{fppf}$ and
$\mathcal{Z} \to (\Sch/S)_{fppf}$ are limit preserving on objects and
$\mathcal{Y}$ is limit preserving, then
$\mathcal{X} \times_\mathcal{Y} \mathcal{Z} \to (\Sch/S)_{fppf}$ is
limit preserving on objects.
\item If $\mathcal{X}$, $\mathcal{Y}$,
and $\mathcal{Z}$ are limit preserving, then so
is $\mathcal{X} \times_\mathcal{Y} \mathcal{Z}$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
This is formal. Proof of (1). Let $T = \lim_{i \in I} T_i$ be the directed
limit of affine schemes $T_i$ over $S$. We will prove that the functor
$\colim \mathcal{X}_{T_i} \to \mathcal{X}_T$ is essentially surjective.
Recall that an object of the fibre product over $T$ is a quadruple
$(T, x, z, \alpha)$ where $x$ is an object of $\mathcal{X}$ lying over $T$,
$z$ is an object of $\mathcal{Z}$ lying over $T$, and
$\alpha : p(x) \to q(z)$ is a morphism in the fibre category of
$\mathcal{Y}$ over $T$. By assumption on $\mathcal{X}$ and $\mathcal{Z}$
we can find an $i$ and objects $x_i$ and $z_i$ over $T_i$ such that
$x_i|_T \cong T$ and $z_i|_T \cong z$. Then $\alpha$ corresponds to
an isomorphism $p(x_i)|_T \to q(z_i)|_T$ which comes from an isomorphism
$\alpha_{i'} : p(x_i)|_{T_{i'}} \to q(z_i)|_{T_{i'}}$ by our assumption on
$\mathcal{Y}$. After replacing $i$ by $i'$, $x_i$ by $x_i|_{T_{i'}}$, and
$z_i$ by $z_i|_{T_{i'}}$ we see that $(T_i, x_i, z_i, \alpha_i)$
is an object of the fibre product over $T_i$ which restricts to
an object isomorphic to $(T, x, z, \alpha)$ over $T$ as desired.
\medskip\noindent
We omit the arguments showing that $\colim \mathcal{X}_{T_i} \to \mathcal{X}_T$
is fully faithful in (2).
\end{proof}
```

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