Lemma 47.5.2. Let $R$ be a ring. Any $R$-module has an injective hull.

**Proof.**
Let $M$ be an $R$-module. By More on Algebra, Section 15.54 the category of $R$-modules has enough injectives. Choose an injection $M \to I$ with $I$ an injective $R$-module. Consider the set $\mathcal{S}$ of submodules $M \subset E \subset I$ such that $E$ is an essential extension of $M$. We order $\mathcal{S}$ by inclusion. If $\{ E_\alpha \} $ is a totally ordered subset of $\mathcal{S}$, then $\bigcup E_\alpha $ is an essential extension of $M$ too (Lemma 47.2.3). Thus we can apply Zorn's lemma and find a maximal element $E \in \mathcal{S}$. We claim $M \subset E$ is an injective hull, i.e., $E$ is an injective $R$-module. This follows from Lemma 47.3.5.
$\square$

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