Lemma 9.23.1 (Fundamental theorem of algebra). The field $\mathbf{C}$ is algebraically closed.

## 9.23 The complex numbers

The fundamental theorem of algebra states that the field of complex numbers is an algebraically closed field. In this section we discuss this briefly.

The first remark we'd like to make is that you need to use a little bit of input from calculus in order to prove this. We will use the intuitively clear fact that every odd degree polynomial over the reals has a real root. Namely, let $P(x) = a_{2k + 1} x^{2k + 1} + \ldots + a_0 \in \mathbf{R}[x]$ for some $k \geq 0$ and $a_{2k + 1} \not= 0$. We may and do assume $a_{2k + 1} > 0$. Then for $x \in \mathbf{R}$ very large (positive) we see that $P(x) > 0$ as the term $a_{2k + 1} x^{2k + 1}$ dominates all the other terms. Similarly, if $x \ll 0$, then $P(x) < 0$ by the same reason (and this is where we use that the degree is odd). Hence by the intermediate value theorem there is an $x \in \mathbf{R}$ with $P(x) = 0$.

A conclusion we can draw from the above is that $\mathbf{R}$ has no nontrivial odd degree field extensions, as elements of such extensions would have odd degree minimal polynomials.

Next, let $K/\mathbf{R}$ be a finite Galois extension with Galois group $G$. Let $P \subset G$ be a $2$-sylow subgroup. Then $K^ P/\mathbf{R}$ is an odd degree extension, hence by the above $K^ P = \mathbf{R}$, which in turn implies $G = P$. (All of these arguments rely on Galois theory of course.) Thus $G$ is a $2$-group. If $G$ is nontrivial, then we see that $\mathbf{C} \subset K$ as $\mathbf{C}$ is (up to isomorphism) the only degree $2$ extension of $\mathbf{R}$. If $G$ has more than $2$ elements we would obtain a quadratic extension of $\mathbf{C}$. This is absurd as every complex number has a square root.

The conclusion: $\mathbf{C}$ is algebraically closed. Namely, if not then we'd get a nontrivial finite extension $\mathbf{C} \subset K$ which we could assume normal (hence Galois) over $\mathbf{R}$ by Lemma 9.16.3. But we've seen above that then $K = \mathbf{C}$.

**Proof.**
See discussion above.
$\square$

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