Lemma 12.3.10. Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a preadditive category. Let $x \oplus y$ with morphisms $i, j, p, q$ as in Lemma 12.3.4 be a direct sum in $\mathcal{C}$. Then $i : x \to x \oplus y$ is a kernel of $q : x \oplus y \rightarrow y$. Dually, $p$ is a cokernel for $j$.

Proof. Let $f : z' \to x \oplus y$ be a morphism such that $q \circ f = 0$. We have to show that there exists a unique morphism $g : z' \to x$ such that $f = i \circ g$. Since $i \circ p + j \circ q$ is the identity on $x \oplus y$ we see that

$f = (i \circ p + j \circ q) \circ f = i \circ p \circ f$

and hence $g = p \circ f$ works. Uniqueness holds because $p \circ i$ is the identity on $x$. The proof of the second statement is dual. $\square$

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