The Stacks project

\begin{equation*} \DeclareMathOperator\Coim{Coim} \DeclareMathOperator\Coker{Coker} \DeclareMathOperator\Ext{Ext} \DeclareMathOperator\Hom{Hom} \DeclareMathOperator\Im{Im} \DeclareMathOperator\Ker{Ker} \DeclareMathOperator\Mor{Mor} \DeclareMathOperator\Ob{Ob} \DeclareMathOperator\Sh{Sh} \DeclareMathOperator\SheafExt{\mathcal{E}\mathit{xt}} \DeclareMathOperator\SheafHom{\mathcal{H}\mathit{om}} \DeclareMathOperator\Spec{Spec} \newcommand\colim{\mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits} \newcommand\lim{\mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Qcoh{\mathit{Qcoh}} \newcommand\Sch{\mathit{Sch}} \newcommand\QCohstack{\mathcal{QC}\!\mathit{oh}} \newcommand\Cohstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{oh}} \newcommand\Spacesstack{\mathcal{S}\!\mathit{paces}} \newcommand\Quotfunctor{\mathrm{Quot}} \newcommand\Hilbfunctor{\mathrm{Hilb}} \newcommand\Curvesstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{urves}} \newcommand\Polarizedstack{\mathcal{P}\!\mathit{olarized}} \newcommand\Complexesstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{omplexes}} \newcommand\Pic{\mathop{\mathrm{Pic}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Picardstack{\mathcal{P}\!\mathit{ic}} \newcommand\Picardfunctor{\mathrm{Pic}} \newcommand\Deformationcategory{\mathcal{D}\!\mathit{ef}} \end{equation*}

Proof. Let $R$ be a UFD. Let $x$ be an element of the fraction field of $R$ which is integral over $R$. Say $x^ d - a_1 x^{d - 1} - \ldots - a_ d = 0$ with $a_ i \in R$. We can write $x = u p_1^{e_1} \ldots p_ r^{e_ r}$ with $u$ a unit, $e_ i \in \mathbf{Z}$, and $p_1, \ldots , p_ r$ irreducible elements which are not associates. To prove the lemma we have to show $e_ i \geq 0$. If not, say $e_1 < 0$, then for $N \gg 0$ we get

\[ u^ d p_2^{de_2 + N} \ldots p_ r^{de_ r + N} = p_1^{-de_1}p_2^ N \ldots p_ r^ N( \sum \nolimits _{i = 1, \ldots , d} a_ i x^{d - i} ) \in (p_1) \]

which contradicts uniqueness of factorization in $R$. $\square$

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