Lemma 57.11.1. Let $S$ be a scheme contained in $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$. Let $F$ be a sheaf on $(\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ such that there exists $U \in \mathop{\mathrm{Ob}}\nolimits ((\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf})$ and a map $U \to F$ which is representable, surjective, and étale. Then $F$ is an algebraic space.

**Proof.**
Set $R = U \times _ F U$. This is a scheme as $U \to F$ is assumed representable. The projections $s, t : R \to U$ are étale as $U \to F$ is assumed étale. The map $j = (t, s) : R \to U \times _ S U$ is a monomorphism and an equivalence relation as $R = U \times _ F U$. By Theorem 57.10.5 the quotient sheaf $F' = U/R$ is an algebraic space and $U \to F'$ is surjective and étale. Again since $R = U \times _ F U$ we obtain a canonical factorization $U \to F' \to F$ and $F' \to F$ is an injective map of sheaves. On the other hand, $U \to F$ is surjective as a map of sheaves by Lemma 57.5.9. Thus $F' \to F$ is also surjective and we conclude $F' = F$ is an algebraic space.
$\square$

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