Lemma 42.64.1. The product defined above is associative. More precisely, with $(S, \delta )$ as above, let $X$ be smooth over $S$, let $Y, Z, W$ be schemes locally of finite type over $X$, let $\alpha \in \mathop{\mathrm{CH}}\nolimits _*(Y)$, $\beta \in \mathop{\mathrm{CH}}\nolimits _*(Z)$, $\gamma \in \mathop{\mathrm{CH}}\nolimits _*(W)$. Then $(\alpha \cdot \beta ) \cdot \gamma = \alpha \cdot (\beta \cdot \gamma )$ in $\mathop{\mathrm{CH}}\nolimits _*(Y \times _ X Z \times _ X W)$.

**Proof.**
By Lemma 42.63.5 we have $(\alpha \times \beta ) \times \gamma = \alpha \times (\beta \times \gamma )$ in $\mathop{\mathrm{CH}}\nolimits _*(Y \times _ S Z \times _ S W)$. Consider the closed immersions

and

Denote $\Delta _{12}^!$ and $\Delta _{23}^!$ the corresponding bivariant classes; observe that $\Delta _{12}^!$ is the restriction (Remark 42.33.5) of $\Delta ^!$ to $X \times _ S X \times _ S X$ by the map $\text{pr}_{12}$ and that $\Delta _{23}^!$ is the restriction of $\Delta ^!$ to $X \times _ S X \times _ S X$ by the map $\text{pr}_{23}$. Thus clearly the restriction of $\Delta _{12}^!$ by $\Delta _{23}$ is $\Delta ^!$ and the restriction of $\Delta _{23}^!$ by $\Delta _{12}$ is $\Delta ^!$ too. Thus by Lemma 42.54.8 we have

Now we can prove the lemma by the following sequence of equalities:

All equalities are clear from the above except perhaps for the second and penultimate one. The equation $\Delta _{23}^!(\alpha \times (\beta \times \gamma )) = \alpha \times \Delta ^!(\beta \times \gamma )$ holds by Remark 42.61.4. Similarly for the second equation. $\square$

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