\begin{equation*} \DeclareMathOperator\Coim{Coim} \DeclareMathOperator\Coker{Coker} \DeclareMathOperator\Ext{Ext} \DeclareMathOperator\Hom{Hom} \DeclareMathOperator\Im{Im} \DeclareMathOperator\Ker{Ker} \DeclareMathOperator\Mor{Mor} \DeclareMathOperator\Ob{Ob} \DeclareMathOperator\Sh{Sh} \DeclareMathOperator\SheafExt{\mathcal{E}\mathit{xt}} \DeclareMathOperator\SheafHom{\mathcal{H}\mathit{om}} \DeclareMathOperator\Spec{Spec} \newcommand\colim{\mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits} \newcommand\lim{\mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Qcoh{\mathit{Qcoh}} \newcommand\Sch{\mathit{Sch}} \newcommand\QCohstack{\mathcal{QC}\!\mathit{oh}} \newcommand\Cohstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{oh}} \newcommand\Spacesstack{\mathcal{S}\!\mathit{paces}} \newcommand\Quotfunctor{\mathrm{Quot}} \newcommand\Hilbfunctor{\mathrm{Hilb}} \newcommand\Curvesstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{urves}} \newcommand\Polarizedstack{\mathcal{P}\!\mathit{olarized}} \newcommand\Complexesstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{omplexes}} \newcommand\Pic{\mathop{\mathrm{Pic}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Picardstack{\mathcal{P}\!\mathit{ic}} \newcommand\Picardfunctor{\mathrm{Pic}} \newcommand\Deformationcategory{\mathcal{D}\!\mathit{ef}} \end{equation*}

The Stacks project

[1.M Lemma (NAK) page 11, MatCA]

We quote from [MatCA]: “This simple but important lemma is due to T. Nakayama, G. Azumaya and W. Krull. Priority is obscure, and although it is usually called the Lemma of Nakayama, late Prof. Nakayama did not like the name.”

Lemma 10.19.1 (Nakayama's lemma). Let $R$ be a ring, let $M$ be an $R$-module, and let $I \subset R$ be an ideal.

  1. If $IM = M$ and $M$ is finite, then there exists a $f \in 1 + I$ such that $fM = 0$.

  2. If $IM = M$, $M$ is finite, and $I \subset \text{rad}(R)$, then $M = 0$.

  3. If $N, N' \subset M$, $M = N + IN'$, and $N'$ is finite, then there exists a $f \in 1 + I$ such that $M_ f = N_ f$.

  4. If $N, N' \subset M$, $M = N + IN'$, $N'$ is finite, and $I \subset \text{rad}(R)$, then $M = N$.

  5. If $N \to M$ is a module map, $N/IN \to M/IM$ is surjective, and $M$ is finite, then there exists a $f \in 1 + I$ such that $N_ f \to M_ f$ is surjective.

  6. If $N \to M$ is a module map, $N/IN \to M/IM$ is surjective, $M$ is finite, and $I \subset \text{rad}(R)$, then $N \to M$ is surjective.

  7. If $x_1, \ldots , x_ n \in M$ generate $M/IM$ and $M$ is finite, then there exists an $f \in 1 + I$ such that $x_1, \ldots , x_ n$ generate $M_ f$ over $R_ f$.

  8. If $x_1, \ldots , x_ n \in M$ generate $M/IM$, $M$ is finite, and $I \subset \text{rad}(R)$, then $M$ is generated by $x_1, \ldots , x_ n$.

  9. If $IM = M$, $I$ is nilpotent, then $M = 0$.

  10. If $N, N' \subset M$, $M = N + IN'$, and $I$ is nilpotent then $M = N$.

  11. If $N \to M$ is a module map, $I$ is nilpotent, and $N/IN \to M/IM$ is surjective, then $N \to M$ is surjective.

  12. If $\{ x_\alpha \} _{\alpha \in A}$ is a set of elements of $M$ which generate $M/IM$ and $I$ is nilpotent, then $M$ is generated by the $x_\alpha $.

Proof. Proof of (1). Choose generators $y_1, \ldots , y_ m$ of $M$ over $R$. For each $i$ we can write $y_ i = \sum z_{ij} y_ j$ with $z_{ij} \in I$ (since $M = IM$). In other words $\sum _ j (\delta _{ij} - z_{ij})y_ j = 0$. Let $f$ be the determinant of the $m \times m$ matrix $A = (\delta _{ij} - z_{ij})$. Note that $f \in 1 + I$ (since the matrix $A$ is entrywise congruent to the $m \times m$ identity matrix modulo $I$). By Lemma 10.14.5 (1), there exists an $m \times m$ matrix $B$ such that $BA = f 1_{m \times m}$. Writing out we see that $\sum _{i} b_{hi} a_{ij} = f \delta _{hj}$ for all $h$ and $j$; hence, $\sum _{i, j} b_{hi} a_{ij} y_ j = \sum _{j} f \delta _{hj} y_ j = f y_ h$ for every $h$. In other words, $0 = f y_ h$ for every $h$ (since each $i$ satisfies $\sum _ j a_{ij} y_ j = 0$). This implies that $f$ annihilates $M$.

By Lemma 10.16.2 an element of $1 + \text{rad}(R)$ is invertible element of $R$. Hence we see that (1) implies (2). We obtain (3) by applying (1) to $M/N$ which is finite as $N'$ is finite. We obtain (4) by applying (2) to $M/N$ which is finite as $N'$ is finite. We obtain (5) by applying (3) to $M$ and the submodules $\mathop{\mathrm{Im}}(N \to M)$ and $M$. We obtain (6) by applying (4) to $M$ and the submodules $\mathop{\mathrm{Im}}(N \to M)$ and $M$. We obtain (7) by applying (5) to the map $R^{\oplus n} \to M$, $(a_1, \ldots , a_ n) \mapsto a_1x_1 + \ldots + a_ nx_ n$. We obtain (8) by applying (6) to the map $R^{\oplus n} \to M$, $(a_1, \ldots , a_ n) \mapsto a_1x_1 + \ldots + a_ nx_ n$.

Part (9) holds because if $M = IM$ then $M = I^ nM$ for all $n \geq 0$ and $I$ being nilpotent means $I^ n = 0$ for some $n \gg 0$. Parts (10), (11), and (12) follow from (9) by the arguments used above. $\square$


Comments (5)

Comment #2793 by Kong Bochao on

I think M finite is needed, just consider the third version, let then unless we further assume noetherian, is not needed finitely generated.

Comment #2794 by Dario Weißmann on

No, I think the result is correct as stated. Why your example does not work: what is your finite s.t. ? It seems to me you would like it to be , but is not a submodule of .

Comment #3279 by Nicolas on

In the proofs of (3) and (4), I don't see how we can deduce that M/N is finitely generated: after all, N' being finitely generated doesn't imply that IN' is.

Comment #3280 by Nicolas on

Kong is right, claim (4) is definitely false: In his counterexample, you can take with satisfying (take for instance = the valuation ring and = the valuation ideal of a nondiscrete valued field).

Comment #3281 by Nicolas on

Never mind, now I see it: simply use that . My bad. Also, the counterexample is none since is not f.g.


Post a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked.

In your comment you can use Markdown and LaTeX style mathematics (enclose it like $\pi$). A preview option is available if you wish to see how it works out (just click on the eye in the toolbar).

Unfortunately JavaScript is disabled in your browser, so the comment preview function will not work.

All contributions are licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.




In order to prevent bots from posting comments, we would like you to prove that you are human. You can do this by filling in the name of the current tag in the following input field. As a reminder, this is tag 00DV. Beware of the difference between the letter 'O' and the digit '0'.