The Stacks project

\begin{equation*} \DeclareMathOperator\Coim{Coim} \DeclareMathOperator\Coker{Coker} \DeclareMathOperator\Ext{Ext} \DeclareMathOperator\Hom{Hom} \DeclareMathOperator\Im{Im} \DeclareMathOperator\Ker{Ker} \DeclareMathOperator\Mor{Mor} \DeclareMathOperator\Ob{Ob} \DeclareMathOperator\Sh{Sh} \DeclareMathOperator\SheafExt{\mathcal{E}\mathit{xt}} \DeclareMathOperator\SheafHom{\mathcal{H}\mathit{om}} \DeclareMathOperator\Spec{Spec} \newcommand\colim{\mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits} \newcommand\lim{\mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Qcoh{\mathit{Qcoh}} \newcommand\Sch{\mathit{Sch}} \newcommand\QCohstack{\mathcal{QC}\!\mathit{oh}} \newcommand\Cohstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{oh}} \newcommand\Spacesstack{\mathcal{S}\!\mathit{paces}} \newcommand\Quotfunctor{\mathrm{Quot}} \newcommand\Hilbfunctor{\mathrm{Hilb}} \newcommand\Curvesstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{urves}} \newcommand\Polarizedstack{\mathcal{P}\!\mathit{olarized}} \newcommand\Complexesstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{omplexes}} \newcommand\Pic{\mathop{\mathrm{Pic}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Picardstack{\mathcal{P}\!\mathit{ic}} \newcommand\Picardfunctor{\mathrm{Pic}} \newcommand\Deformationcategory{\mathcal{D}\!\mathit{ef}} \end{equation*}

Remark 10.16.8. A fundamental commutative diagram associated to a ring map $\varphi : R \to S$, a prime $\mathfrak q \subset S$ and the corresponding prime $\mathfrak p = \varphi ^{-1}(\mathfrak q)$ of $R$ is the following

\[ \xymatrix{ \kappa (\mathfrak q) = S_{\mathfrak q}/{\mathfrak q}S_{\mathfrak q} & S_{\mathfrak q} \ar[l] & S \ar[r] \ar[l] & S/\mathfrak q \ar[r] & \kappa (\mathfrak q) \\ \kappa (\mathfrak p) \otimes _ R S = S_{\mathfrak p}/{\mathfrak p}S_{\mathfrak p} \ar[u] & S_{\mathfrak p} \ar[u] \ar[l] & S \ar[u] \ar[r] \ar[l] & S/\mathfrak pS \ar[u] \ar[r] & (R \setminus \mathfrak p)^{-1}S/\mathfrak pS \ar[u] \\ \kappa (\mathfrak p) = R_{\mathfrak p}/{\mathfrak p}R_{\mathfrak p} \ar[u] & R_{\mathfrak p} \ar[u] \ar[l] & R \ar[u] \ar[r] \ar[l] & R/\mathfrak p \ar[u] \ar[r] & \kappa (\mathfrak p) \ar[u] } \]

In this diagram the arrows in the outer left and outer right columns are identical. The horizontal maps induce on the associated spectra always a homeomorphism onto the image. The lower two rows of the diagram make sense without assuming $\mathfrak q$ exists. The lower squares induce fibre squares of topological spaces. This diagram shows that $\mathfrak p$ is in the image of the map on Spec if and only if $S \otimes _ R \kappa (\mathfrak p)$ is not the zero ring.


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