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\begin{equation*} \DeclareMathOperator\Coim{Coim} \DeclareMathOperator\Coker{Coker} \DeclareMathOperator\Ext{Ext} \DeclareMathOperator\Hom{Hom} \DeclareMathOperator\Im{Im} \DeclareMathOperator\Ker{Ker} \DeclareMathOperator\Mor{Mor} \DeclareMathOperator\Ob{Ob} \DeclareMathOperator\Sh{Sh} \DeclareMathOperator\SheafExt{\mathcal{E}\mathit{xt}} \DeclareMathOperator\SheafHom{\mathcal{H}\mathit{om}} \DeclareMathOperator\Spec{Spec} \newcommand\colim{\mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits} \newcommand\lim{\mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Qcoh{\mathit{Qcoh}} \newcommand\Sch{\mathit{Sch}} \newcommand\QCohstack{\mathcal{QC}\!\mathit{oh}} \newcommand\Cohstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{oh}} \newcommand\Spacesstack{\mathcal{S}\!\mathit{paces}} \newcommand\Quotfunctor{\mathrm{Quot}} \newcommand\Hilbfunctor{\mathrm{Hilb}} \newcommand\Curvesstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{urves}} \newcommand\Polarizedstack{\mathcal{P}\!\mathit{olarized}} \newcommand\Complexesstack{\mathcal{C}\!\mathit{omplexes}} \newcommand\Pic{\mathop{\mathrm{Pic}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Picardstack{\mathcal{P}\!\mathit{ic}} \newcommand\Picardfunctor{\mathrm{Pic}} \newcommand\Deformationcategory{\mathcal{D}\!\mathit{ef}} \end{equation*}

Lemma 10.58.10. Let $R$ be a Noetherian local ring. Let $I \subset R$ be an ideal of definition. Let $0 \to M' \to M \to M'' \to 0$ be a short exact sequence of finite $R$-modules. Then

  1. if $M'$ does not have finite length, then $\chi _{I, M} - \chi _{I, M''} - \chi _{I, M'}$ is a numerical polynomial of degree $<$ the degree of $\chi _{I, M'}$,

  2. $\max \{ \deg (\chi _{I, M'}), \deg (\chi _{I, M''}) \} = \deg (\chi _{I, M})$, and

  3. $\max \{ d(M'), d(M'')\} = d(M)$,

Proof. We first prove (1). Let $N \subset M'$ be as in Lemma 10.58.3. By Lemma 10.58.9 the numerical polynomial $\chi _{I, M'} - \chi _{I, N}$ has degree $<$ the common degree of $\chi _{I, M'}$ and $\chi _{I, N}$. By Lemma 10.58.3 the difference

\[ \chi _{I, M}(n) - \chi _{I, M''}(n) - \chi _{I, N}(n - c) \]

is constant for $n \gg 0$. By elementary calculus the difference $\chi _{I, N}(n) - \chi _{I, N}(n - c)$ has degree $<$ the degree of $\chi _{I, N}$ which is bigger than zero (see above). Putting everything together we obtain (1).

Note that the leading coefficients of $\chi _{I, M'}$ and $\chi _{I, M''}$ are nonnegative. Thus the degree of $\chi _{I, M'} + \chi _{I, M''}$ is equal to the maximum of the degrees. Thus if $M'$ does not have finite length, then (2) follows from (1). If $M'$ does have finite length, then $I^ nM \to I^ nM''$ is an isomorphism for all $n \gg 0$ by Artin-Rees (Lemma 10.50.2). Thus $M/I^ nM \to M''/I^ nM''$ is a surjection with kernel $M'$ for $n \gg 0$ and we see that $\chi _{I, M}(n) - \chi _{I, M''}(n) = \text{length}(M')$ for all $n \gg 0$. Thus (2) holds in this case also.

Proof of (3). This follows from (2) except if one of $M$, $M'$, or $M''$ is zero. We omit the proof in these special cases. $\square$


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