Lemma 10.69.2. Let $R$ be a ring.

1. A regular sequence $f_1, \ldots , f_ c$ of $R$ is a quasi-regular sequence.

2. Suppose that $M$ is an $R$-module and that $f_1, \ldots , f_ c$ is an $M$-regular sequence. Then $f_1, \ldots , f_ c$ is an $M$-quasi-regular sequence.

Proof. Set $J = (f_1, \ldots , f_ c)$. We prove the first assertion by induction on $c$. We have to show that given any relation $\sum _{|I| = n} a_ I f^ I \in J^{n + 1}$ with $a_ I \in R$ we actually have $a_ I \in J$ for all multi-indices $I$. Since any element of $J^{n + 1}$ is of the form $\sum _{|I| = n} b_ I f^ I$ with $b_ I \in J$ we may assume, after replacing $a_ I$ by $a_ I - b_ I$, the relation reads $\sum _{|I| = n} a_ I f^ I = 0$. We can rewrite this as

$\sum \nolimits _{e = 0}^ n \left( \sum \nolimits _{|I'| = n - e} a_{I', e} f^{I'} \right) f_ c^ e = 0$

Here and below the “primed” multi-indices $I'$ are required to be of the form $I' = (i_1, \ldots , i_{c - 1}, 0)$. We will show by descending induction on $l \in \{ 0, \ldots , n\}$ that if we have a relation

$\sum \nolimits _{e = 0}^ l \left( \sum \nolimits _{|I'| = n - e} a_{I', e} f^{I'} \right) f_ c^ e = 0$

then $a_{I', e} \in J$ for all $I', e$. Namely, set $J' = (f_1, \ldots , f_{c-1})$. Observe that $\sum \nolimits _{|I'| = n - l} a_{I', l} f^{I'}$ is mapped into $(J')^{n - l + 1}$ by $f_ c^{l}$. By induction hypothesis (for the induction on $c$) we see that $f_ c^ l a_{I', l} \in J'$. Because $f_ c$ is not a zerodivisor on $R/J'$ (as $f_1, \ldots , f_ c$ is a regular sequence) we conclude that $a_{I', l} \in J'$. This allows us to rewrite the term $(\sum \nolimits _{|I'| = n - l} a_{I', l} f^{I'})f_ c^ l$ in the form $(\sum \nolimits _{|I'| = n - l + 1} f_ c b_{I', l - 1} f^{I'})f_ c^{l-1}$. This gives a new relation of the form

$\left(\sum \nolimits _{|I'| = n - l + 1} (a_{I', l-1} + f_ c b_{I', l - 1}) f^{I'}\right)f_ c^{l-1} + \sum \nolimits _{e = 0}^{l - 2} \left( \sum \nolimits _{|I'| = n - e} a_{I', e} f^{I'} \right) f_ c^ e = 0$

Now by the induction hypothesis (on $l$ this time) we see that all $a_{I', l-1} + f_ c b_{I', l - 1} \in J$ and all $a_{I', e} \in J$ for $e \leq l - 2$. This, combined with $a_{I', l} \in J' \subset J$ seen above, finishes the proof of the induction step.

The second assertion means that given any formal expression $F = \sum _{|I| = n} m_ I X^ I$, $m_ I \in M$ with $\sum m_ I f^ I \in J^{n + 1}M$, then all the coefficients $m_ I$ are in $J$. This is proved in exactly the same way as we prove the corresponding result for the first assertion above. $\square$

Comment #919 by JuanPablo on

In this passage:

"We observe that $\sum\nolimits_{|I'| = n - l} a_{I', l} f^{I'}$ is mapped into $J'$ by $f_c^{l}$ and hence (because $f_c$ is not a zerodivisor on $R/J'$) it is in $J'$. By induction hypotheses (for the induction on $c$), we see that $a_{I', l} \in J'$."

Induction should come first and then that $f_c$ is not a zero divisor:

"We observe that $\sum\nolimits_{|I'| = n - l} f_c^l a_{I', l} f^{I'}$ belongs to $J'^{n-l+1}$, so by induction hypotheses (for the induction on $c$), we see that $f_c^l a_{I', l} \in J'$ and hence (because $f_c$ is not a zerodivisor on $R/J'$) we see that $a_{I', l}\in J'$."

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