
## 25.4 Closed immersions of locally ringed spaces

We follow our conventions introduced in Modules, Definition 17.13.1.

Definition 25.4.1. Let $i : Z \to X$ be a morphism of locally ringed spaces. We say that $i$ is a closed immersion if:

1. The map $i$ is a homeomorphism of $Z$ onto a closed subset of $X$.

2. The map $\mathcal{O}_ X \to i_*\mathcal{O}_ Z$ is surjective; let $\mathcal{I}$ denote the kernel.

3. The $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module $\mathcal{I}$ is locally generated by sections.

Lemma 25.4.2. Let $f : Z \to X$ be a morphism of locally ringed spaces. In order for $f$ to be a closed immersion it suffices that there exists an open covering $X = \bigcup U_ i$ such that each $f : f^{-1}U_ i \to U_ i$ is a closed immersion.

Proof. Omitted. $\square$

Example 25.4.3. Let $X$ be a locally ringed space. Let $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$ be a sheaf of ideals which is locally generated by sections as a sheaf of $\mathcal{O}_ X$-modules. Let $Z$ be the support of the sheaf of rings $\mathcal{O}_ X/\mathcal{I}$. This is a closed subset of $X$, by Modules, Lemma 17.5.3. Denote $i : Z \to X$ the inclusion map. By Modules, Lemma 17.6.1 there is a unique sheaf of rings $\mathcal{O}_ Z$ on $Z$ with $i_*\mathcal{O}_ Z = \mathcal{O}_ X/\mathcal{I}$. For any $z \in Z$ the stalk $\mathcal{O}_{Z, z}$ is equal to a quotient $\mathcal{O}_{X, i(z)}/\mathcal{I}_{i(z)}$ of a local ring and nonzero, hence a local ring. Thus $i : (Z, \mathcal{O}_ Z) \to (X, \mathcal{O}_ X)$ is a closed immersion of locally ringed spaces.

Definition 25.4.4. Let $X$ be a locally ringed space. Let $\mathcal{I}$ be a sheaf of ideals on $X$ which is locally generated by sections. The locally ringed space $(Z, \mathcal{O}_ Z)$ of Example 25.4.3 above is the closed subspace of $X$ associated to the sheaf of ideals $\mathcal{I}$.

Lemma 25.4.5. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a closed immersion of locally ringed spaces. Let $\mathcal{I}$ be the kernel of the map $\mathcal{O}_ Y \to f_*\mathcal{O}_ X$. Let $i : Z \to Y$ be the closed subspace of $Y$ associated to $\mathcal{I}$. There is a unique isomorphism $f' : X \cong Z$ of locally ringed spaces such that $f = i \circ f'$.

Proof. Omitted. $\square$

Lemma 25.4.6. Let $X$, $Y$ be locally ringed spaces. Let $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$ be a sheaf of ideals locally generated by sections. Let $i : Z \to X$ be the associated closed subspace. A morphism $f : Y \to X$ factors through $Z$ if and only if the map $f^*\mathcal{I} \to f^*\mathcal{O}_ X = \mathcal{O}_ Y$ is zero. If this is the case the morphism $g : Y \to Z$ such that $f = i \circ g$ is unique.

Proof. Clearly if $f$ factors as $Y \to Z \to X$ then the map $f^*\mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{O}_ Y$ is zero. Conversely suppose that $f^*\mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{O}_ Y$ is zero. Pick any $y \in Y$, and consider the ring map $f^\sharp _ y : \mathcal{O}_{X, f(y)} \to \mathcal{O}_{Y, y}$. Since the composition $\mathcal{I}_{f(y)} \to \mathcal{O}_{X, f(y)} \to \mathcal{O}_{Y, y}$ is zero by assumption and since $f^\sharp _ y(1) = 1$ we see that $1 \not\in \mathcal{I}_{f(y)}$, i.e., $\mathcal{I}_{f(y)} \not= \mathcal{O}_{X, f(y)}$. We conclude that $f(Y) \subset Z = \text{Supp}(\mathcal{O}_ X/\mathcal{I})$. Hence $f = i \circ g$ where $g : Y \to Z$ is continuous. Consider the map $f^\sharp : \mathcal{O}_ X \to f_*\mathcal{O}_ Y$. The assumption $f^*\mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{O}_ Y$ is zero implies that the composition $\mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{O}_ X \to f_*\mathcal{O}_ Y$ is zero by adjointness of $f_*$ and $f^*$. In other words, we obtain a morphism of sheaves of rings $\overline{f^\sharp } : \mathcal{O}_ X/\mathcal{I} \to f_*\mathcal{O}_ Y$. Note that $f_*\mathcal{O}_ Y = i_*g_*\mathcal{O}_ Y$ and that $\mathcal{O}_ X/\mathcal{I} = i_*\mathcal{O}_ Z$. By Sheaves, Lemma 6.32.4 we obtain a unique morphism of sheaves of rings $g^\sharp : \mathcal{O}_ Z \to g_*\mathcal{O}_ Y$ whose pushforward under $i$ is $\overline{f^\sharp }$. We omit the verification that $(g, g^\sharp )$ defines a morphism of locally ringed spaces and that $f = i \circ g$ as a morphism of locally ringed spaces. The uniqueness of $(g, g^\sharp )$ was pointed out above. $\square$

Lemma 25.4.7. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of locally ringed spaces. Let $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ Y$ be a sheaf of ideals which is locally generated by sections. Let $i : Z \to Y$ be the closed subspace associated to the sheaf of ideals $\mathcal{I}$. Let $\mathcal{J}$ be the image of the map $f^*\mathcal{I} \to f^*\mathcal{O}_ Y = \mathcal{O}_ X$. Then this ideal is locally generated by sections. Moreover, let $i' : Z' \to X$ be the associated closed subspace of $X$. There exists a unique morphism of locally ringed spaces $f' : Z' \to Z$ such that the following diagram is a commutative square of locally ringed spaces

$\xymatrix{ Z' \ar[d]_{f'} \ar[r]_{i'} & X \ar[d]^ f \\ Z \ar[r]^{i} & Y }$

Moreover, this diagram is a fibre square in the category of locally ringed spaces.

Proof. The ideal $\mathcal{J}$ is locally generated by sections by Modules, Lemma 17.8.2. The rest of the lemma follows from the characterization, in Lemma 25.4.6 above, of what it means for a morphism to factor through a closed subspace. $\square$

Comment #404 by Keenan on

In the proof of 01HP, $\mathscr{I}_y$ should be $\mathscr{I}_{f(y)}$ in a three places.

Comment #434 by Leeroy on

In example 25.4.3 it should be $\mathcal{O}_{X,z}/\mathcal{I}_z$ (or $\mathcal{O}_{X,i(z)}/\mathcal{I}_{i(z)}$) and not $\mathcal{O}_{X,x}/\mathcal{I}_x$.

I was wondering, are you interested in people writing down those omitted simple proofs or do you not write them down just to make the thing more readable ? Obviously you would wish for people to contribute more meaningful stuff but since I'm learning I can't contribute anything interesting.

Comment #436 by on

Thanks for typo! Fixed here.

Yes, the goal is to fill in all the omitted proofs and any contribution like that is welcomed. If it becomes unreadable because of this (but I personally have never found this to be a problem), then we can use a technological solution to hide proofs (behind a link or something). Most of the omitted proofs should be easier or equivalent to things that are being proved in the same section or chapter. If you find that this is not the case, then please leave a comment saying so.

Comment #2582 by Dario Weißmann on

Typo in Lemma 25.4.6: Let $X,Y$ be $a$ locally ringed spaces.

Comment #3779 by qiao on

Typo in Lemma 01HP (Lemma 25.4.6) $f^*\mathcal{I} \to f^*\mathcal{O}_ X = \mathcal{O}_ Y$ perhaps not "=" here

Comment #3780 by qiao on

Typo in Lemma 01HP (Lemma 25.4.6) perhaps not "=" here

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