Lemma 32.12.1. Let $S$ be a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme. Let $f : X \to S$ be a separated morphism of finite type. Then there exists an $n \geq 0$ and a diagram

\[ \xymatrix{ X \ar[rd] & X' \ar[d] \ar[l]^\pi \ar[r] & \mathbf{P}^ n_ S \ar[dl] \\ & S & } \]

where $X' \to \mathbf{P}^ n_ S$ is an immersion, and $\pi : X' \to X$ is proper and surjective.

**Proof.**
By Proposition 32.9.6 we can find a closed immersion $X \to Y$ where $Y$ is separated and of finite presentation over $S$. Clearly, if we prove the assertion for $Y$, then the result follows for $X$. Hence we may assume that $X$ is of finite presentation over $S$.

Write $S = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits _ i S_ i$ as a directed limit of Noetherian schemes, see Proposition 32.5.4. By Lemma 32.10.1 we can find an index $i \in I$ and a scheme $X_ i \to S_ i$ of finite presentation so that $X = S \times _{S_ i} X_ i$. By Lemma 32.8.6 we may assume that $X_ i \to S_ i$ is separated. Clearly, if we prove the assertion for $X_ i$ over $S_ i$, then the assertion holds for $X$. The case $X_ i \to S_ i$ is treated by Cohomology of Schemes, Lemma 30.18.1.
$\square$

## Comments (2)

Comment #5902 by Harry Gindi on

Comment #6103 by Johan on