## Tag `02UP`

Chapter 36: More on Morphisms > Section 36.38: Zariski's Main Theorem

Lemma 36.38.5. Let $f : X \to S$ be a morphism of schemes. Let $s \in S$. Assume that $f$ is proper and $f^{-1}(\{s\})$ is a finite set. Then there exists an open neighbourhood $V \subset S$ of $s$ such that $f|_{f^{-1}(V)} : f^{-1}(V) \to V$ is finite.

Proof.The morphism $f$ is quasi-finite at all the points of $f^{-1}(\{s\})$ by Morphisms, Lemma 28.19.7. By Morphisms, Lemma 28.52.2 the set of points at which $f$ is quasi-finite is an open $U \subset X$. Let $Z = X \setminus U$. Then $s \not \in f(Z)$. Since $f$ is proper the set $f(Z) \subset S$ is closed. Choose any open neighbourhood $V \subset S$ of $s$ with $Z \cap V = \emptyset$. Then $f^{-1}(V) \to V$ is locally quasi-finite and proper. Hence it is quasi-finite (Morphisms, Lemma 28.19.9), hence has finite fibres (Morphisms, Lemma 28.19.10), hence is finite by Lemma 36.38.4. $\square$

The code snippet corresponding to this tag is a part of the file `more-morphisms.tex` and is located in lines 10637–10644 (see updates for more information).

```
\begin{lemma}
\label{lemma-proper-finite-fibre-finite-in-neighbourhood}
Let $f : X \to S$ be a morphism of schemes.
Let $s \in S$.
Assume that $f$ is proper and $f^{-1}(\{s\})$ is a finite set.
Then there exists an open neighbourhood $V \subset S$ of $s$
such that $f|_{f^{-1}(V)} : f^{-1}(V) \to V$ is finite.
\end{lemma}
\begin{proof}
The morphism $f$ is quasi-finite at all the points of $f^{-1}(\{s\})$
by Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-finite-fibre}.
By Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-quasi-finite-points-open} the
set of points at which $f$ is quasi-finite is an open $U \subset X$.
Let $Z = X \setminus U$. Then $s \not \in f(Z)$. Since $f$ is proper
the set $f(Z) \subset S$ is closed. Choose any open neighbourhood
$V \subset S$ of $s$ with $Z \cap V = \emptyset$. Then
$f^{-1}(V) \to V$ is locally quasi-finite and proper.
Hence it is quasi-finite
(Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-quasi-finite-locally-quasi-compact}),
hence has finite fibres
(Morphisms, Lemma \ref{morphisms-lemma-quasi-finite}), hence
is finite by Lemma \ref{lemma-characterize-finite}.
\end{proof}
```

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