Lemma 35.21.1. The property $\mathcal{P}(f) =$“$f$ is an immersion” is fppf local on the base.

## 35.21 Properties of morphisms local in the fppf topology on the target

In this section we find some properties of morphisms of schemes for which we could not (yet) show they are local on the base in the fpqc topology which, however, are local on the base in the fppf topology.

**Proof.**
The property of being an immersion is stable under base change, see Schemes, Lemma 26.18.2. The property of being an immersion is Zariski local on the base. Finally, let $\pi : S' \to S$ be a surjective morphism of affine schemes, which is flat and locally of finite presentation. Note that $\pi : S' \to S$ is open by Morphisms, Lemma 29.25.10. Let $f : X \to S$ be a morphism. Assume that the base change $f' : X' \to S'$ is an immersion. In particular we see that $f'(X') = \pi ^{-1}(f(X))$ is locally closed. Hence by Topology, Lemma 5.6.4 we see that $f(X) \subset S$ is locally closed. Let $Z \subset S$ be the closed subset $Z = \overline{f(X)} \setminus f(X)$. By Topology, Lemma 5.6.4 again we see that $f'(X')$ is closed in $S' \setminus Z'$. Hence we may apply Lemma 35.20.19 to the fpqc covering $\{ S' \setminus Z' \to S \setminus Z\} $ and conclude that $f : X \to S \setminus Z$ is a closed immersion. In other words, $f$ is an immersion. Therefore Lemma 35.19.4 applies and we win.
$\square$

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