Theorem 59.68.1 (The Fundamental Exact Sequence). There is a short exact sequence of étale sheaves on $X$

**Proof.**
Let $\varphi : U \to X$ be an étale morphism. Then by properties of étale morphisms (Proposition 59.26.2), $U = \coprod _ i U_ i$ where each $U_ i$ is a smooth curve mapping to $X$. The above sequence for $U$ is a product of the corresponding sequences for each $U_ i$, so it suffices to treat the case where $U$ is connected, hence irreducible. In this case, there is a well known exact sequence

This amounts to a sequence

which, unfolding definitions, is nothing but a sequence

This defines the maps in the Fundamental Exact Sequence and shows it is exact except possibly at the last step. To see surjectivity, let us recall that if $U$ is a nonsingular curve and $D$ is a divisor on $U$, then there exists a Zariski open covering $\{ U_ j \to U\} $ of $U$ such that $D|_{U_ j} = \text{div}(f_ j)$ for some $f_ j \in k(U)^*$. $\square$

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