Definition 18.31.1. Let $(f, f^\sharp ) : (\mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{C}), \mathcal{O}) \longrightarrow (\mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{C}'), \mathcal{O}')$ be a morphism of ringed topoi. We say $(f, f^\sharp )$ is *flat* if the ring map $f^\sharp : f^{-1}\mathcal{O}' \to \mathcal{O}$ is flat. We say a morphism of ringed sites is *flat* if the associated morphism of ringed topoi is flat.

## 18.31 Flat morphisms

Lemma 18.31.2. Let $f : \mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{C}) \to \mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{C}')$ be a morphism of ringed topoi. Then

is exact. If $(f, f^\sharp ) : (\mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{C}), \mathcal{O}) \to (\mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{C}'), \mathcal{O}')$ is a flat morphism of ringed topoi then

is exact.

**Proof.**
Given an abelian sheaf $\mathcal{G}$ on $\mathcal{C}'$ the underlying sheaf of sets of $f^{-1}\mathcal{G}$ is the same as $f^{-1}$ of the underlying sheaf of sets of $\mathcal{G}$, see Sites, Section 7.44. Hence the exactness of $f^{-1}$ for sheaves of sets (required in the definition of a morphism of topoi, see Sites, Definition 7.15.1) implies the exactness of $f^{-1}$ as a functor on abelian sheaves.

To see the statement on modules recall that $f^*\mathcal{F}$ is defined as the tensor product $f^{-1}\mathcal{F} \otimes _{f^{-1}\mathcal{O}', f^\sharp } \mathcal{O}$. Hence $f^*$ is a composition of functors both of which are exact. $\square$

Definition 18.31.3. Let $f : (\mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{C}), \mathcal{O}) \to (\mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{D}), \mathcal{O}')$ be a morphism of ringed topoi. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a sheaf of $\mathcal{O}$-modules. We say that $\mathcal{F}$ is *flat over $(\mathop{\mathit{Sh}}\nolimits (\mathcal{D}), \mathcal{O}')$* if $\mathcal{F}$ is flat as an $f^{-1}\mathcal{O}'$-module.

This is compatible with the notion as defined for morphisms of ringed spaces, see Modules, Definition 17.19.3 and the discussion following.

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