Example 10.86.2. If $(A_ i, \varphi _{ji})$ is a directed inverse system of sets or of modules and the maps $\varphi _{ji}$ are surjective, then clearly the system is Mittag-Leffler. Conversely, suppose $(A_ i, \varphi _{ji})$ is Mittag-Leffler. Let $A'_ i \subset A_ i$ be the stable image of $\varphi _{ji}(A_ j)$ for $j \geq i$. Then $\varphi _{ji}|_{A'_ j}: A'_ j \to A'_ i$ is surjective for $j \geq i$ and $\mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits A_ i = \mathop{\mathrm{lim}}\nolimits A'_ i$. Hence the limit of the Mittag-Leffler system $(A_ i, \varphi _{ji})$ can also be written as the limit of a directed inverse system over $I$ with surjective maps.

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