Ind-smoothness of an algebra is stable under infinitesimal deformations

Proposition 16.5.3. Let $R \to \Lambda$ be a ring map. Let $I \subset R$ be an ideal. Assume that

1. $I$ is nilpotent,

2. $\Lambda /I\Lambda$ is a filtered colimit of smooth $R/I$-algebras, and

3. $R \to \Lambda$ is flat.

Then $\Lambda$ is a filtered colimit of smooth $R$-algebras.

Proof. Since $I^ n = 0$ for some $n$, it follows by induction on $n$ that it suffices to consider the case where $I^2 = 0$. Let $\varphi : A \to \Lambda$ be an $R$-algebra map with $A$ of finite presentation over $R$. We have to find a factorization $A \to B \to \Lambda$ with $B$ smooth over $R$, see Algebra, Lemma 10.127.4. By Lemma 16.5.1 we may assume that $A = B/J$ with $B$ smooth over $R$ and $J \subset IB$ a finitely generated ideal. By Lemma 16.5.2 we can find a (possibly noncommutative) diagram

$\xymatrix{ B \ar[rr]_\alpha \ar[rd]_\varphi & & B' \ar[ld]^\beta \\ & \Lambda }$

of $R$-algebras which commutes modulo $I$ and such that $\alpha (J) = 0$. The map

$D : B \longrightarrow I\Lambda ,\quad b \longmapsto \varphi (b) - \beta (\alpha (b))$

is a derivation over $R$ hence we can write it as $D = \xi \circ \text{d}_{B/R}$ for some $B$-linear map $\xi : \Omega _{B/R} \to I\Lambda$. Since $\Omega _{B/R}$ is a finite projective $B$-module we can write $\xi = \sum _{i = 1, \ldots , n} \epsilon _ i \Xi _ i$ for some $\epsilon _ i \in I$ and $B$-linear maps $\Xi _ i : \Omega _{B/R} \to \Lambda$. (Details omitted. Hint: write $\Omega _{B/R}$ as a direct sum of a finite free module to reduce to the finite free case.) We define

$B'' = \text{Sym}^*_{B'}\left(\bigoplus \nolimits _{i = 1, \ldots , n} \Omega _{B/R} \otimes _{B, \alpha } B'\right)$

and we define $\beta ' : B'' \to \Lambda$ by $\beta$ on $B'$ and by

$\beta '|_{i\text{th summand }\Omega _{B/R} \otimes _{B, \alpha } B'} = \Xi _ i \otimes \beta$

and $\alpha ' : B \to B''$ by

$\alpha '(b) = \alpha (b) \oplus \sum \epsilon _ i \text{d}_{B/R}(b) \otimes 1 \oplus 0 \oplus \ldots$

At this point the diagram

$\xymatrix{ B \ar[rr]_{\alpha '} \ar[rd]_\varphi & & B'' \ar[ld]^{\beta '} \\ & \Lambda }$

does commute. Moreover, it is direct from the definitions that $\alpha '(J) = 0$ as $I^2 = 0$. Hence the desired factorization. $\square$

## Comments (3)

Comment #3752 by slogan_bot on

Suggested slogan: Ind-smoothness of an algebra is stable under infinitesimal deformations.

Comment #4040 by Kęstutis Česnavičius on

At the end of the statement 'colimit' should be 'filtered colimit.'

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