Lemma 88.13.5. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of locally Noetherian formal algebraic spaces over $S$. The following are equivalent

$f$ is flat,

for every commutative diagram

\[ \xymatrix{ U \ar[d] \ar[r] & V \ar[d] \\ X \ar[r] & Y } \]with $U$ and $V$ affine formal algebraic spaces, $U \to X$ and $V \to Y$ representable by algebraic spaces and étale, the morphism $U \to V$ corresponds to a flat map in $\textit{WAdm}^{Noeth}$,

there exists a covering $\{ Y_ j \to Y\} $ as in Formal Spaces, Definition 87.11.1 and for each $j$ a covering $\{ X_{ji} \to Y_ j \times _ Y X\} $ as in Formal Spaces, Definition 87.11.1 such that each $X_{ji} \to Y_ j$ corresponds to a flat map in $\textit{WAdm}^{Noeth}$, and

there exist a covering $\{ X_ i \to X\} $ as in Formal Spaces, Definition 87.11.1 and for each $i$ a factorization $X_ i \to Y_ i \to Y$ where $Y_ i$ is an affine formal algebraic space, $Y_ i \to Y$ is representable by algebraic spaces and étale, and $X_ i \to Y_ i$ corresponds to a flat map in $\textit{WAdm}^{Noeth}$.

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