Lemma 81.5.19. Let $B \to S$ as in Section 81.2. Let $j : R \to U \times _ B U$ be a set-theoretic pre-equivalence relation. A morphism $\phi : U \to X$ is an orbit space for $R$ if and only if

$\phi \circ s = \phi \circ t$, i.e., $\phi $ is invariant,

the induced morphism $(t, s) : R \to U \times _ X U$ is surjective, and

the morphism $\phi : U \to X$ is surjective.

This characterization applies for example if $j$ is a pre-equivalence relation, or comes from a groupoid in algebraic spaces over $B$, or comes from the action of a group algebraic space over $B$ on $U$.

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