Lemma 70.12.8. Let $k$ be a field. Let $X$ be an algebraic space over $k$. The following are equivalent

$X$ is geometrically connected,

for every finite separable field extension $k \subset k'$ the algebraic space $X_{k'}$ is connected.

Lemma 70.12.8. Let $k$ be a field. Let $X$ be an algebraic space over $k$. The following are equivalent

$X$ is geometrically connected,

for every finite separable field extension $k \subset k'$ the algebraic space $X_{k'}$ is connected.

**Proof.**
This proof is identical to the proof of Varieties, Lemma 33.7.11 except that we replace Varieties, Lemma 33.7.7 by Lemma 70.12.5, we replace Varieties, Lemma 33.7.9 by Lemma 70.12.6, and we replace Varieties, Lemma 33.7.10 by Lemma 70.12.7. We urge the reader to read that proof in stead of this one.

It follows immediately from the definition that (1) implies (2). Assume that $X$ is not geometrically connected. Let $k \subset \overline{k}$ be a separable algebraic closure of $k$. By Lemma 70.12.5 it follows that $X_{\overline{k}}$ is disconnected. Say $X_{\overline{k}} = \overline{U} \amalg \overline{V}$ with $\overline{U}$ and $\overline{V}$ open, closed, and nonempty algebraic subspaces of $X_{\overline{k}}$.

Suppose that $W \subset X$ is any quasi-compact open subspace. Then $W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{U}$ and $W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{V}$ are open and closed subspaces of $W_{\overline{k}}$. In particular $W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{U}$ and $W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{V}$ are quasi-compact, and by Lemma 70.12.6 both $W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{U}$ and $W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{V}$ are defined over a finite subextension and invariant under an open subgroup of $\text{Gal}(\overline{k}/k)$. We will use this without further mention in the following.

Pick $W_0 \subset X$ quasi-compact open subspace such that both $W_{0, \overline{k}} \cap \overline{U}$ and $W_{0, \overline{k}} \cap \overline{V}$ are nonempty. Choose a finite subextension $k \subset k' \subset \overline{k}$ and a decomposition $W_{0, k'} = U_0' \amalg V_0'$ into open and closed subsets such that $W_{0, \overline{k}} \cap \overline{U} = (U'_0)_{\overline{k}}$ and $W_{0, \overline{k}} \cap \overline{V} = (V'_0)_{\overline{k}}$. Let $H = \text{Gal}(\overline{k}/k') \subset \text{Gal}(\overline{k}/k)$. In particular $\sigma (W_{0, \overline{k}} \cap \overline{U}) = W_{0, \overline{k}} \cap \overline{U}$ and similarly for $\overline{V}$.

Having chosen $W_0$, $k'$ as above, for every quasi-compact open subspace $W \subset X$ we set

\[ U_ W = \bigcap \nolimits _{\sigma \in H} \sigma (W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{U}), \quad V_ W = \bigcup \nolimits _{\sigma \in H} \sigma (W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{V}). \]

Now, since $W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{U}$ and $W_{\overline{k}} \cap \overline{V}$ are fixed by an open subgroup of $\text{Gal}(\overline{k}/k)$ we see that the union and intersection above are finite. Hence $U_ W$ and $V_ W$ are both open and closed subspaces. Also, by construction $W_{\bar k} = U_ W \amalg V_ W$.

We claim that if $W \subset W' \subset X$ are quasi-compact open subspaces, then $W_{\overline{k}} \cap U_{W'} = U_ W$ and $W_{\overline{k}} \cap V_{W'} = V_ W$. Verification omitted. Hence we see that upon defining $U = \bigcup _{W \subset X} U_ W$ and $V = \bigcup _{W \subset X} V_ W$ we obtain $X_{\overline{k}} = U \amalg V$ is a disjoint union of open and closed subsets. It is clear that $V$ is nonempty as it is constructed by taking unions (locally). On the other hand, $U$ is nonempty since it contains $W_0 \cap \overline{U}$ by construction. Finally, $U, V \subset X_{\bar k}$ are closed and $H$-invariant by construction. Hence by Lemma 70.12.7 we have $U = (U')_{\bar k}$, and $V = (V')_{\bar k}$ for some closed $U', V' \subset X_{k'}$. Clearly $X_{k'} = U' \amalg V'$ and we see that $X_{k'}$ is disconnected as desired. $\square$

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked.

In your comment you can use Markdown and LaTeX style mathematics (enclose it like `$\pi$`

). A preview option is available if you wish to see how it works out (just click on the eye in the toolbar).

Unfortunately JavaScript is disabled in your browser, so the comment preview function will not work.

All contributions are licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

## Comments (2)

Comment #3983 by Laurent Moret-Bailly on

Comment #4108 by Johan on

There are also: