Lemma 78.11.3. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $\{ X_ i \to X\} _{i \in I}$ be an fppf covering of algebraic spaces over $S$.

** Fppf descent data for algebraic spaces are effective. **

**Proof.**
Proof of (1). By Descent on Spaces, Lemma 72.22.1 this translates into the statement that an fppf sheaf $F$ endowed with a map $F \to X$ is an algebraic space provided that each $F \times _ X X_ i$ is an algebraic space. The restriction on the cardinality of $I$ implies that coproducts of algebraic spaces indexed by $I$ are algebraic spaces, see Spaces, Lemma 63.8.4 and Sets, Lemma 3.9.9. The morphism

is representable by algebraic spaces (as the base change of $\coprod X_ i \to X$, see Lemma 78.3.3), and surjective, flat, and locally of finite presentation (as the base change of $\coprod X_ i \to X$, see Lemma 78.4.2). Hence part (1) follows from Theorem 78.10.1.

Proof of (2). First we apply Descent on Spaces, Lemma 72.22.1 to obtain an fppf sheaf $F$ endowed with a map $F \to X$ such that $F \times _ X X_ i = Y_ i$ for all $i \in I$. Our goal is to show that $F$ is an algebraic space. Choose a scheme $U$ and a surjective étale morphism $U \to X$. Then $F' = U \times _ X F \to F$ is representable, surjective, and étale as the base change of $U \to X$. By Theorem 78.10.1 it suffices to show that $F' = U \times _ X F$ is an algebraic space. We may choose an fppf covering $\{ U_ j \to U\} _{j \in J}$ where $U_ j$ is a scheme refining the fppf covering $\{ X_ i \times _ X U \to U\} _{i \in I}$, see Topologies on Spaces, Lemma 71.7.4. Thus we get a map $a : J \to I$ and for each $j$ a morphism $U_ j \to X_{a(j)}$ over $X$. Then we see that $U_ j \times _ U F' = U_ j \times _{X_{a(j)}} Y_{a(j)}$ is of finite type over $U_ j$. Hence $F'$ is an algebraic space by Lemma 78.11.2. $\square$

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