The Stacks project

Lemma 68.8.3. Let $S$ be a scheme. Let $X$ be a quasi-compact algebraic space over $S$. There exist open subspaces

\[ \ldots \subset U_4 \subset U_3 \subset U_2 \subset U_1 = X \]

with the following properties:

  1. setting $T_ p = U_ p \setminus U_{p + 1}$ (with reduced induced subspace structure) there exists a separated scheme $V_ p$ and a surjective étale morphism $f_ p : V_ p \to U_ p$ such that $f_ p^{-1}(T_ p) \to T_ p$ is an isomorphism,

  2. if $x \in |X|$ can be represented by a quasi-compact morphism $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k) \to X$ from a field, then $x \in T_ p$ for some $p$.

Proof. By Properties of Spaces, Lemma 66.6.3 we can choose an affine scheme $U$ and a surjective étale morphism $U \to X$. For $p \geq 0$ set

\[ W_ p = U \times _ X \ldots \times _ X U \setminus \text{all diagonals} \]

where the fibre product has $p$ factors. Since $U$ is separated, the morphism $U \to X$ is separated and all fibre products $U \times _ X \ldots \times _ X U$ are separated schemes. Since $U \to X$ is separated the diagonal $U \to U \times _ X U$ is a closed immersion. Since $U \to X$ is étale the diagonal $U \to U \times _ X U$ is an open immersion, see Morphisms of Spaces, Lemmas 67.39.10 and 67.38.9. Similarly, all the diagonal morphisms are open and closed immersions and $W_ p$ is an open and closed subscheme of $U \times _ X \ldots \times _ X U$. Moreover, the morphism

\[ U \times _ X \ldots \times _ X U \longrightarrow U \times _{\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\mathbf{Z})} \ldots \times _{\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\mathbf{Z})} U \]

is locally quasi-finite and separated (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 67.4.5) and its target is an affine scheme. Hence every finite set of points of $U \times _ X \ldots \times _ X U$ is contained in an affine open, see More on Morphisms, Lemma 37.45.1. Therefore, the same is true for $W_ p$. There is a free action of the symmetric group $S_ p$ on $W_ p$ over $X$ (because we threw out the fix point locus from $U \times _ X \ldots \times _ X U$). By the above and Properties of Spaces, Proposition 66.14.1 the quotient $V_ p = W_ p/S_ p$ is a scheme. Since the action of $S_ p$ on $W_ p$ was over $X$, there is a morphism $V_ p \to X$. Since $W_ p \to X$ is étale and since $W_ p \to V_ p$ is surjective étale, it follows that also $V_ p \to X$ is étale, see Properties of Spaces, Lemma 66.16.3. Observe that $V_ p$ is a separated scheme by Properties of Spaces, Lemma 66.14.3.

We let $U_ p \subset X$ be the open subspace which is the image of $V_ p \to X$. By construction a morphism $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k) \to X$ with $k$ algebraically closed, factors through $U_ p$ if and only if $U \times _ X \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k)$ has $\geq p$ points; as usual observe that $U \times _ X \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k)$ is scheme theoretically a disjoint union of (possibly infinitely many) copies of $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k)$, see Remark 68.4.1. It follows that the $U_ p$ give a filtration of $X$ as stated in the lemma. Moreover, our morphism $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k) \to X$ factors through $T_ p$ if and only if $U \times _ X \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k)$ has exactly $p$ points. In this case we see that $V_ p \times _ X \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k)$ has exactly one point. Set $Z_ p = f_ p^{-1}(T_ p) \subset V_ p$. This is a closed subscheme of $V_ p$. Then $Z_ p \to T_ p$ is an étale morphism between algebraic spaces which induces a bijection on $k$-valued points for any algebraically closed field $k$. To be sure this implies that $Z_ p \to T_ p$ is universally injective, whence an open immersion by Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 67.51.2 hence an isomorphism and (1) has been proved.

Let $x : \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k) \to X$ be a quasi-compact morphism where $k$ is a field. Then the composition $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\overline{k}) \to \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(k) \to X$ is quasi-compact as well (Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 67.8.5). In this case the scheme $U \times _ X \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\overline{k})$ is quasi-compact. In view of the fact (seen above) that it is a disjoint union of copies of $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\overline{k})$ we find that it has finitely many points. If the number of points is $p$, then we see that indeed $x \in T_ p$ and the proof is finished. $\square$

Comments (0)

Post a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked.

In your comment you can use Markdown and LaTeX style mathematics (enclose it like $\pi$). A preview option is available if you wish to see how it works out (just click on the eye in the toolbar).

Unfortunately JavaScript is disabled in your browser, so the comment preview function will not work.

All contributions are licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

In order to prevent bots from posting comments, we would like you to prove that you are human. You can do this by filling in the name of the current tag in the following input field. As a reminder, this is tag 0BBN. Beware of the difference between the letter 'O' and the digit '0'.