The Stacks project

Lemma 105.5.21. Let $\mathcal{T} \hookrightarrow \mathcal{X}$ be a locally of finite type monomorphism of algebraic stacks, with $\mathcal{X}$ (and thus also $\mathcal{T}$) being Jacobson, pseudo-catenary, and locally Noetherian. Suppose further that $\mathcal{T}$ is irreducible of some (finite) dimension $d$, and that $\mathcal{X}$ is reduced and of dimension less than or equal to $d$. Then there is a non-empty open substack $\mathcal{V}$ of $\mathcal{T}$ such that the induced monomorphism $\mathcal{V} \hookrightarrow \mathcal{X}$ is an open immersion which identifies $\mathcal{V}$ with an open subset of an irreducible component of $\mathcal{X}$.

Proof. Choose a smooth surjective morphism $f:U \to \mathcal{X}$ with source a scheme, necessarily reduced since $\mathcal{X}$ is, and write $U' = \mathcal{T}\times _{\mathcal{X}} U$. The base-changed morphism $U' \to U$ is a monomorphism of algebraic spaces, locally of finite type, and thus representable Morphisms of Spaces, Lemma 65.51.1 and 65.27.10; since $U$ is a scheme, so is $U'$. The projection $f': U' \to \mathcal{T}$ is again a smooth surjection. Let $u' \in U'$, with image $u \in U$. Lemma 105.5.9 shows that $\dim _{u'}(U'_{f(u')}) = \dim _ u(U_{f(u)}),$ while $\dim _{f'(u')}(\mathcal{T}) =d \geq \dim _{f(u)}(\mathcal{X})$ by Lemma 105.5.17 and our assumptions on $\mathcal{T}$ and $\mathcal{X}$. Thus we see that

105.5.21.1
\begin{equation} \label{stacks-geometry-equation-dim-inequality} \dim _{u'} (U') = \dim _{u'} (U'_{f(u')}) + \dim _{f'(u')}(\mathcal{T}) \\ \geq \dim _ u (U_{f(u)}) + \dim _{f(u)}(\mathcal{X}) = \dim _ u (U). \end{equation}

Since $U' \to U$ is a monomorphism, locally of finite type, it is in particular unramified, and so by the étale local structure of unramified morphisms Étale Morphisms, Lemma 41.17.3, we may find a commutative diagram

\[ \xymatrix{ V' \ar[r]\ar[d] & V \ar[d] \\ U' \ar[r] & U } \]

in which the scheme $V'$ is non-empty, the vertical arrows are étale, and the upper horizontal arrow is a closed immersion. Replacing $V$ by a quasi-compact open subset whose image has non-empty intersection with the image of $U'$, and replacing $V'$ by the preimage of $V$, we may further assume that $V$ (and thus $V'$) is quasi-compact. Since $V$ is also locally Noetherian, it is thus Noetherian, and so is the union of finitely many irreducible components.

Since étale morphisms preserve pointwise dimension Descent, Lemma 35.18.2 we deduce from (105.5.21.1) that for any point $v' \in V'$, with image $v \in V$, we have $\dim _{v'}( V') \geq \dim _ v(V)$. In particular, the image of $V'$ can't be contained in the intersection of two distinct irreducible components of $V$, and so we may find at least one irreducible open subset of $V$ which has non-empty intersection with $V'$; replacing $V$ by this subset, we may assume that $V$ is integral (being both reduced and irreducible). From the preceding inequality on dimensions, we conclude that the closed immersion $V' \hookrightarrow V$ is in fact an isomorphism. If we let $W$ denote the image of $V'$ in $U'$, then $W$ is a non-empty open subset of $U'$ (as étale morphisms are open), and the induced monomorphism $W \to U$ is étale (since it is so étale locally on the source, i.e. after pulling back to $V'$), and hence is an open immersion (being an étale monomorphism). Thus, if we let $\mathcal{V}$ denote the image of $W$ in $\mathcal{T}$, then $\mathcal{V}$ is a dense (equivalently, non-empty) open substack of $\mathcal{T}$, whose image is dense in an irreducible component of $\mathcal{X}$. Finally, we note that the morphism is $\mathcal{V} \to \mathcal{X}$ is smooth (since its composite with the smooth morphism $W\to \mathcal{V}$ is smooth), and also a monomorphism, and thus is an open immersion. $\square$


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