## 53.21 More vanishing results

Continuation of Section 53.6.

Lemma 53.21.1. In Situation 53.6.2 assume $X$ is integral and has genus $g$. Let $\mathcal{L}$ be an invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module. Let $Z \subset X$ be a $0$-dimensional closed subscheme with ideal sheaf $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$. If $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L})$ is nonzero, then

$\deg (\mathcal{L}) \leq 2g - 2 + \deg (Z)$

with strict inequality unless $\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \cong \omega _ X$.

Proof. Any curve, e.g. $X$, is Cohen-Macaulay. If $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L})$ is nonzero, then there is a nonzero map $\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \omega _ X$, see Lemma 53.4.2. Since $\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}$ is torsion free, this map is injective. Since a field is Gorenstein and $X$ is reduced, we find that the Gorenstein locus $U \subset X$ of $X$ is nonempty, see Duality for Schemes, Lemma 48.24.4. This lemma also tells us that $\omega _ X|_ U$ is invertible. In this way we see we have a short exact sequence

$0 \to \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \omega _ X \to \mathcal{Q} \to 0$

where the support of $\mathcal{Q}$ is zero dimensional. Hence we have

\begin{align*} 0 & \leq \dim \Gamma (X, \mathcal{Q})\\ & = \chi (\mathcal{Q}) \\ & = \chi (\omega _ X) - \chi (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \\ & = \chi (\omega _ X) - \deg (\mathcal{L}) - \chi (\mathcal{I}) \\ & = 2g - 2 - \deg (\mathcal{L}) + \deg (Z) \end{align*}

by Lemmas 53.5.1 and 53.5.2, by (53.8.1.1), and by Varieties, Lemmas 33.33.3 and 33.44.5. We have also used that $\deg (Z) = \dim _ k \Gamma (Z, \mathcal{O}_ Z) = \chi (\mathcal{O}_ Z)$ and the short exact sequence $0 \to \mathcal{I} \to \mathcal{O}_ X \to \mathcal{O}_ Z \to 0$. The lemma follows. $\square$

Lemma 53.21.2. In Situation 53.6.2 assume $X$ is integral and has genus $g$. Let $\mathcal{L}$ be an invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module. Let $Z \subset X$ be a $0$-dimensional closed subscheme with ideal sheaf $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$. If $\deg (\mathcal{L}) > 2g - 2 + \deg (Z)$, then $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) = 0$ and one of the following possibilities occurs

1. $H^0(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \not= 0$, or

2. $g = 0$ and $\deg (\mathcal{L}) = \deg (Z) - 1$.

In case (2) if $Z = \emptyset$, then $X \cong \mathbf{P}^1_ k$ and $\mathcal{L}$ corresponds to $\mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{P}^1}(-1)$.

Proof. The vanishing of $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L})$ follows from Lemma 53.21.1. If $H^0(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) = 0$, then $\chi (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) = 0$. From the short exact sequence $0 \to \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{O}_ Z \to 0$ we conclude $\deg (\mathcal{L}) = g - 1 + \deg (Z)$. Thus $g - 1 + \deg (Z) > 2g - 2 + \deg (Z)$ which implies $g = 0$ hence (2) holds. If $Z = \emptyset$ in case (2), then $\mathcal{L}^{-1}$ is an invertible sheaf of degree $1$. This implies there is an isomorphism $X \to \mathbf{P}^1_ k$ and $\mathcal{L}^{-1}$ is the pullback of $\mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{P}^1}(1)$ by Lemma 53.10.2. $\square$

Lemma 53.21.3. In Situation 53.6.2 assume $X$ is integral and has genus $g$. Let $\mathcal{L}$ be an invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module. If $\deg (\mathcal{L}) \geq 2g$, then $\mathcal{L}$ is globally generated.

Proof. Let $Z \subset X$ be the closed subscheme cut out by the global sections of $\mathcal{L}$. By Lemma 53.21.2 we see that $Z \not= X$. Let $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$ be the ideal sheaf cutting out $Z$. Consider the short exact sequence

$0 \to \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{O}_ Z \to 0$

If $Z \not= \emptyset$, then $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L})$ is nonzero as follows from the long exact sequence of cohomology. By Lemma 53.4.2 this gives a nonzero and hence injective map

$\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \longrightarrow \omega _ X$

In particular, we find an injective map $H^0(X, \mathcal{L}) = H^0(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \to H^0(X, \omega _ X)$. This is impossible as

$\dim _ k H^0(X, \mathcal{L}) = \dim _ k H^1(X, \mathcal{L}) + \deg (\mathcal{L}) + 1 - g \geq g + 1$

and $\dim H^0(X, \omega _ X) = g$ by (53.8.1.1). $\square$

Lemma 53.21.4. In Situation 53.6.2 assume $X$ is integral and has genus $g$. Let $\mathcal{L}$ be an invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module. Let $Z \subset X$ be a nonempty $0$-dimensional closed subscheme. If $\deg (\mathcal{L}) \geq 2g - 1 + \deg (Z)$, then $\mathcal{L}$ is globally generated and $H^0(X, \mathcal{L}) \to H^0(X, \mathcal{L}|_ Z)$ is surjective.

Proof. Global generation by Lemma 53.21.3. If $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$ is the ideal sheaf of $Z$, then $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) = 0$ by Lemma 53.21.1. Hence surjectivity. $\square$

Lemma 53.21.5. In Situation 53.6.2, assume $X$ is geometrically integral over $k$ and has genus $g$. Let $\mathcal{L}$ be an invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module. If $\deg (\mathcal{L}) \geq 2g + 1$, then $\mathcal{L}$ is very ample.

Proof. By Lemma 53.21.3, $\mathcal{L}$ is globally generated, and so it determines a morphism $f : X \to \mathbf{P}^ n_ k$ where $n = h^0(X,\mathcal{L}) - 1$. To show that $\mathcal{L}$ is very ample means to show that $f$ is a closed immersion. It suffices to check that the base change of $f$ to an algebraic closure $\overline{k}$ of $k$ is a closed immersion (Descent, Lemma 35.23.19). So we may assume that $k$ is algebraically closed; $X$ remains integral, by assumption. Lemma 53.21.4 gives that for every $0$-dimensional closed subscheme $Z\subset X$ of degree 2, the restriction map $H^0(X, \mathcal{L}) \to H^0(X, \mathcal{L}|_ Z)$ is surjective. By Varieties, Lemma 33.23.2, $\mathcal{L}$ is very ample. $\square$

Lemma 53.21.6. Let $k$ be a field. Let $X$ be a proper scheme over $k$ which is reduced, connected, and of dimension $1$. Let $\mathcal{L}$ be an invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module. Let $Z \subset X$ be a $0$-dimensional closed subscheme with ideal sheaf $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$. If $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \not= 0$, then there exists a reduced connected closed subscheme $Y \subset X$ of dimension $1$ such that

$\deg (\mathcal{L}|_ Y) \leq -2\chi (Y, \mathcal{O}_ Y) + \deg (Z \cap Y)$

where $Z \cap Y$ is the scheme theoretic intersection.

Proof. If $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L})$ is nonzero, then there is a nonzero map $\varphi : \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \omega _ X$, see Lemma 53.4.2. Let $Y \subset X$ be the union of the irreducible components $C$ of $X$ such that $\varphi$ is nonzero in the generic point of $C$. Then $Y$ is a reduced closed subscheme. Let $\mathcal{J} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$ be the ideal sheaf of $Y$. Since $\mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}$ has no embedded associated points (as a submodule of $\mathcal{L}$) and as $\varphi$ is zero in the generic points of the support of $\mathcal{J}$ (by choice of $Y$ and as $X$ is reduced), we find that $\varphi$ factors as

$\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \omega _ X$

We can view $\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}$ as the pushforward of a coherent sheaf on $Y$ which by abuse of notation we indicate with the same symbol. Since $\omega _ Y = \mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits (\mathcal{O}_ Y, \omega _ X)$ by Lemma 53.4.5 we find a map

$\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}/ \mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \omega _ Y$

of $\mathcal{O}_ Y$-modules which is injective in the generic points of $Y$. Let $\mathcal{I}' \subset \mathcal{O}_ Y$ be the ideal sheaf of $Z \cap Y$. There is a map $\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y$ whose kernel is supported in closed points. Since $\omega _ Y$ is a Cohen-Macaulay module, the map above factors through an injective map $\mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y \to \omega _ Y$. We see that we get an exact sequence

$0 \to \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y \to \omega _ Y \to \mathcal{Q} \to 0$

of coherent sheaves on $Y$ where $\mathcal{Q}$ is supported in dimension $0$ (this uses that $\omega _ Y$ is an invertible module in the generic points of $Y$). We conclude that

$0 \leq \dim \Gamma (Y, \mathcal{Q}) = \chi (\mathcal{Q}) = \chi (\omega _ Y) - \chi (\mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}) = -2\chi (\mathcal{O}_ Y) - \deg (\mathcal{L}|_ Y) + \deg (Z \cap Y)$

by Lemma 53.5.1 and Varieties, Lemma 33.33.3. If $Y$ is connected, then this proves the lemma. If not, then we repeat the last part of the argument for one of the connected components of $Y$. $\square$

Lemma 53.21.7. Let $k$ be a field. Let $X$ be a proper scheme over $k$ which is reduced, connected, and of dimension $1$. Let $\mathcal{L}$ be an invertible $\mathcal{O}_ X$-module. Assume that for every reduced connected closed subscheme $Y \subset X$ of dimension $1$ we have

$\deg (\mathcal{L}|_ Y) \geq 2\dim _ k H^1(Y, \mathcal{O}_ Y)$

Then $\mathcal{L}$ is globally generated.

Proof. By induction on the number of irreducible components of $X$. If $X$ is irreducible, then the lemma holds by Lemma 53.21.3 applied to $X$ viewed as a scheme over the field $k' = H^0(X, \mathcal{O}_ X)$. Assume $X$ is not irreducible. Before we continue, if $k$ is finite, then we replace $k$ by a purely transcendental extension $K$. This is allowed by Varieties, Lemmas 33.22.1, 33.44.2, 33.6.7, and 33.8.4, Cohomology of Schemes, Lemma 30.5.2, Lemma 53.4.4 and the elementary fact that $K$ is geometrically integral over $k$.

Assume that $\mathcal{L}$ is not globally generated to get a contradiction. Then we may choose a coherent ideal sheaf $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$ such that $H^0(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) = H^0(X, \mathcal{L})$ and such that $\mathcal{O}_ X/\mathcal{I}$ is nonzero with support of dimension $0$. For example, take $\mathcal{I}$ the ideal sheaf of any closed point in the common vanishing locus of the global sections of $\mathcal{L}$. We consider the short exact sequence

$0 \to \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to 0$

Since the support of $\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}$ has dimension $0$ we see that $\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}$ is generated by global sections (Varieties, Lemma 33.33.3). From the short exact sequence, and the fact that $H^0(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) = H^0(X, \mathcal{L})$ we get an injection $H^0(X, \mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \to H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L})$.

Recall that the $k$-vector space $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L})$ is dual to $\mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}, \omega _ X)$. Choose $\varphi : \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \omega _ X$. By Lemma 53.21.6 we have $H^1(X, \mathcal{L}) = 0$. Hence

$\dim _ k H^0(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) = \dim _ k H^0(X, \mathcal{L}) = \deg (\mathcal{L}) + \chi (\mathcal{O}_ X) > \dim _ k H^1(X, \mathcal{O}_ X) = \dim _ k H^0(X, \omega _ X)$

We conclude that $\varphi$ is not injective on global sections, in particular $\varphi$ is not injective. For every generic point $\eta \in X$ of an irreducible component of $X$ denote $V_\eta \subset \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}, \omega _ X)$ the $k$-subvector space consisting of those $\varphi$ which are zero at $\eta$. Since every associated point of $\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}$ is a generic point of $X$, the above shows that $\mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}, \omega _ X) = \bigcup V_\eta$. As $X$ has finitely many generic points and $k$ is infinite, we conclude $\mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}, \omega _ X) = V_\eta$ for some $\eta$. Let $\eta \in C \subset X$ be the corresponding irreducible component. Let $Y \subset X$ be the union of the other irreducible components of $X$. Then $Y$ is a nonempty reduced closed subscheme not equal to $X$. Let $\mathcal{J} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$ be the ideal sheaf of $Y$. Please keep in mind that the support of $\mathcal{J}$ is $C$.

Let $\varphi : \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \omega _ X$ be arbitrary. Since $\mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}$ has no embedded associated points (as a submodule of $\mathcal{L}$) and as $\varphi$ is zero in the generic point $\eta$ of the support of $\mathcal{J}$, we find that $\varphi$ factors as

$\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \omega _ X$

We can view $\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}$ as the pushforward of a coherent sheaf on $Y$ which by abuse of notation we indicate with the same symbol. Since $\omega _ Y = \mathop{\mathcal{H}\! \mathit{om}}\nolimits (\mathcal{O}_ Y, \omega _ X)$ by Lemma 53.4.5 we find a factorization

$\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}/ \mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \xrightarrow {\varphi '} \omega _ Y \to \omega _ X$

of $\varphi$. Let $\mathcal{I}' \subset \mathcal{O}_ Y$ be the image of $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ X$. There is a surjective map $\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{J}\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y$ whose kernel is supported in closed points. Since $\omega _ Y$ is a Cohen-Macaulay module on $Y$, the map $\varphi '$ factors through a map $\varphi '' : \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y \to \omega _ Y$. Thus we have commutative diagrams

$\vcenter { \xymatrix{ 0 \ar[r] & \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \ar[r] \ar[d] & \mathcal{L} \ar[r] \ar[d] & \mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \ar[r] \ar[d] & 0 \\ 0 \ar[r] & \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y \ar[r] & \mathcal{L}|_ Y \ar[r] & \mathcal{L}|_ Y/\mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y \ar[r] & 0 } } \quad \text{and}\quad \vcenter { \xymatrix{ \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \ar[r]_\varphi \ar[d] & \omega _ X \\ \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y \ar[r]^{\varphi ''} & \omega _ Y \ar[u] } }$

Now we can finish the proof as follows: Since for every $\varphi$ we have a $\varphi ''$ and since $\omega _ X \in \textit{Coh}(\mathcal{O}_ X)$ represents the functor $\mathcal{F} \mapsto \mathop{\mathrm{Hom}}\nolimits _ k(H^1(X, \mathcal{F}), k)$, we find that $H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \to H^1(Y, \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y)$ is injective. Since the boundary $H^0(X, \mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \to H^1(X, \mathcal{I}\mathcal{L})$ is injective, we conclude the composition

$H^0(X, \mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \to H^0(X, \mathcal{L}|_ Y/\mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y) \to H^1(X, \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y)$

is injective. Since $\mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L} \to \mathcal{L}|_ Y/\mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y$ is a surjective map of coherent modules whose supports have dimension $0$, we see that the first map $H^0(X, \mathcal{L}/\mathcal{I}\mathcal{L}) \to H^0(X, \mathcal{L}|_ Y/\mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y)$ is surjective (and hence bijective). But by induction we have that $\mathcal{L}|_ Y$ is globally generated (if $Y$ is disconnected this still works of course) and hence the boundary map

$H^0(X, \mathcal{L}|_ Y/\mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y) \to H^1(X, \mathcal{I}'\mathcal{L}|_ Y)$

cannot be injective. This contradiction finishes the proof. $\square$

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