Lemma 47.28.2. Let $Y$ be a Noetherian scheme. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a local complete intersection morphism. Let $r$ be the locally constant function on $X$ such that $\omega _{Y/X} = H^{-r}(f^!\mathcal{O}_ Y)$ is the unique nonzero cohomology sheaf of $f^!\mathcal{O}_ Y$, see Lemma 47.17.10. Assume $f$ factors as an immersion $X \to P$ followed by a proper smooth morphism $P \to Y$. Then there is a map

\[ \wedge ^ r\Omega _{X/Y} \longrightarrow \omega _{Y/X} \]

which is an isomorphism on the stalk at a point $x$ if and only if $f$ is smooth at $x$.

**Proof.**
The assumption implies that $X$ is compactifyable over $Y$ hence $f^!$ is defined, see Section 47.16. Let $j : W \to P$ be an open subscheme such that $X \to P$ factors through a closed immersion $i : X \to W$. Moreover, we have $f^! = i^! \circ j^! \circ g^!$ where $g : P \to Y$ is the given morphism. We have $g^!\mathcal{O}_ Y = \wedge ^ d\Omega _{P/Y}[d]$ by Lemma 47.15.7 where $d$ is the locally constant function giving the relative dimension of $P$ over $Y$. We have $j^! = j^*$. We have $i^!\mathcal{O}_ W = \wedge ^ c\mathcal{N}[-c]$ where $c$ is the codimension of $X$ in $W$ (a locally constant function on $X$) and where $\mathcal{N}$ is the normal sheaf of the Koszul-regular immersion $i$, see Lemma 47.15.6. Combining the above we find

\[ f^!\mathcal{O}_ Y = \left(\wedge ^ c\mathcal{N} \otimes _{\mathcal{O}_ X} \wedge ^ d\Omega _{P/Y}|_ X\right)[d - c] \]

where we have also used Lemma 47.17.8. Thus $r = d|_ X - c$ as locally constant functions on $X$. The conormal sheaf of $X \to P$ is the module $\mathcal{I}/\mathcal{I}^2$ where $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{O}_ W$ is the ideal sheaf of $i$, see Morphisms, Section 28.30. Consider the canonical exact sequence

\[ \mathcal{I}/\mathcal{I}^2 \to \Omega _{P/Y}|_ X \to \Omega _{X/Y} \to 0 \]

of Morphisms, Lemma 28.31.15. We obtain our map by an application of Lemma 47.28.1.

If $f$ is smooth at $x$, then the map is an isomorphism by an application of Lemma 47.28.1 and the fact that $\Omega _{X/Y}$ is locally free at $x$ of rank $r$. Conversely, assume that our map is an isomorphism on stalks at $x$. Then the lemma shows that $\Omega _{X/Y}$ is free of rank $r$ after replacing $X$ by an open neighbourhood of $x$. On the other hand, we may also assume that $X = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)$ and $Y = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)$ where $A = R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n]/(f_1, \ldots , f_ m)$ and where $f_1, \ldots , f_ m$ is a Koszul regular sequence (this follows from the definition of local complete intersection morphisms). Clearly this implies $r = n - m$. We conclude that the rank of the matrix of partials $\partial f_ j/\partial x_ i$ in the residue field at $x$ is $m$. Thus after reordering the variables we may assume the determinant of $(\partial f_ j/\partial x_ i)_{1 \leq i, j \leq m}$ is invertible in an open neighbourhood of $x$. It follows that $R \to A$ is smooth at this point, see for example Algebra, Example 10.136.8.
$\square$

## Comments (1)

Comment #4631 by Noah Olander on