Lemma 10.136.10. Let $R \to S$ be a smooth ring map. There exists an open covering of $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(S)$ by standard opens $D(g)$ such that each $S_ g$ is standard smooth over $R$. In particular $R \to S$ is syntomic.

**Proof.**
Choose a presentation $\alpha : R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n] \to S$ with kernel $I = (f_1, \ldots , f_ m)$. For every subset $E \subset \{ 1, \ldots , m\} $ consider the open subset $U_ E$ where the classes $f_ e, e\in E$ freely generate the finite projective $S$-module $I/I^2$, see Lemma 10.78.3. We may cover $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(S)$ by standard opens $D(g)$ each completely contained in one of the opens $U_ E$. For such a $g$ we look at the presentation

mapping $x_{n + 1}$ to $1/g$. Setting $J = \mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(\beta )$ we use Lemma 10.133.12 to see that $J/J^2 \cong (I/I^2)_ g \oplus S_ g$ is free. We may and do replace $S$ by $S_ g$. Then using Lemma 10.135.6 we may assume we have a presentation $\alpha : R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n] \to S$ with kernel $I = (f_1, \ldots , f_ c)$ such that $I/I^2$ is free on the classes of $f_1, \ldots , f_ c$.

Using the presentation $\alpha $ obtained at the end of the previous paragraph, we more or less repeat this argument with the basis elements $\text{d}x_1, \ldots , \text{d}x_ n$ of $\Omega _{R[x_1, \ldots , x_ n]/R}$. Namely, for any subset $E \subset \{ 1, \ldots , n\} $ of cardinality $c$ we may consider the open subset $U_ E$ of $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(S)$ where the differential of $\mathop{N\! L}\nolimits (\alpha )$ composed with the projection

is an isomorphism. Again we may find a covering of $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(S)$ by (finitely many) standard opens $D(g)$ such that each $D(g)$ is completely contained in one of the opens $U_ E$. By renumbering, we may assume $E = \{ 1, \ldots , c\} $. For a $g$ with $D(g) \subset U_ E$ we look at the presentation

mapping $x_{n + 1}$ to $1/g$. Setting $J = \mathop{\mathrm{Ker}}(\beta )$ we conclude from Lemma 10.133.12 that $J = (f_1, \ldots , f_ c, fx_{n + 1} - 1)$ where $\alpha (f) = g$ and that the composition

is an isomorphism. Reordering the coordinates as $x_1, \ldots , x_ c, x_{n + 1}, x_{c + 1}, \ldots , x_ n$ we conclude that $S_ g$ is standard smooth over $R$ as desired.

This finishes the proof as standard smooth algebras are syntomic (Lemmas 10.136.7 and 10.135.14) and being syntomic over $R$ is local on $S$ (Lemma 10.135.4). $\square$

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