## 42.12 Proper pushforward

Definition 42.12.1. Let $(S, \delta )$ be as in Situation 42.7.1. Let $X$, $Y$ be locally of finite type over $S$. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism. Assume $f$ is proper.

1. Let $Z \subset X$ be an integral closed subscheme with $\dim _\delta (Z) = k$. We define

$f_*[Z] = \left\{ \begin{matrix} 0 & \text{if} & \dim _\delta (f(Z))< k, \\ \deg (Z/f(Z)) [f(Z)] & \text{if} & \dim _\delta (f(Z)) = k. \end{matrix} \right.$

Here we think of $f(Z) \subset Y$ as an integral closed subscheme. The degree of $Z$ over $f(Z)$ is finite if $\dim _\delta (f(Z)) = \dim _\delta (Z)$ by Lemma 42.11.1.

2. Let $\alpha = \sum n_ Z [Z]$ be a $k$-cycle on $X$. The pushforward of $\alpha$ as the sum

$f_* \alpha = \sum n_ Z f_*[Z]$

where each $f_*[Z]$ is defined as above. The sum is locally finite by Lemma 42.11.2 above.

By definition the proper pushforward of cycles

$f_* : Z_ k(X) \longrightarrow Z_ k(Y)$

is a homomorphism of abelian groups. It turns $X \mapsto Z_ k(X)$ into a covariant functor on the category of schemes locally of finite type over $S$ with morphisms equal to proper morphisms.

Lemma 42.12.2. Let $(S, \delta )$ be as in Situation 42.7.1. Let $X$, $Y$, and $Z$ be locally of finite type over $S$. Let $f : X \to Y$ and $g : Y \to Z$ be proper morphisms. Then $g_* \circ f_* = (g \circ f)_*$ as maps $Z_ k(X) \to Z_ k(Z)$.

Proof. Let $W \subset X$ be an integral closed subscheme of dimension $k$. Consider $W' = f(W) \subset Y$ and $W'' = g(f(W)) \subset Z$. Since $f$, $g$ are proper we see that $W'$ (resp. $W''$) is an integral closed subscheme of $Y$ (resp. $Z$). We have to show that $g_*(f_*[W]) = (g \circ f)_*[W]$. If $\dim _\delta (W'') < k$, then both sides are zero. If $\dim _\delta (W'') = k$, then we see the induced morphisms

$W \longrightarrow W' \longrightarrow W''$

both satisfy the hypotheses of Lemma 42.11.1. Hence

$g_*(f_*[W]) = \deg (W/W')\deg (W'/W'')[W''], \quad (g \circ f)_*[W] = \deg (W/W'')[W''].$

Then we can apply Morphisms, Lemma 29.51.9 to conclude. $\square$

A closed immersion is proper. If $i : Z \to X$ is a closed immersion then the maps

$i_* : Z_ k(Z) \longrightarrow Z_ k(X)$

are all injective.

Lemma 42.12.3. Let $(S, \delta )$ be as in Situation 42.7.1. Let $X$ be locally of finite type over $S$. Let $X_1, X_2 \subset X$ be closed subschemes such that $X = X_1 \cup X_2$ set theoretically. For every $k \in \mathbf{Z}$ the sequence of abelian groups

$\xymatrix{ Z_ k(X_1 \cap X_2) \ar[r] & Z_ k(X_1) \oplus Z_ k(X_2) \ar[r] & Z_ k(X) \ar[r] & 0 }$

is exact. Here $X_1 \cap X_2$ is the scheme theoretic intersection and the maps are the pushforward maps with one multiplied by $-1$.

Proof. First assume $X$ is quasi-compact. Then $Z_ k(X)$ is a free $\mathbf{Z}$-module with basis given by the elements $[Z]$ where $Z \subset X$ is integral closed of $\delta$-dimension $k$. The groups $Z_ k(X_1)$, $Z_ k(X_2)$, $Z_ k(X_1 \cap X_2)$ are free on the subset of these $Z$ such that $Z \subset X_1$, $Z \subset X_2$, $Z \subset X_1 \cap X_2$. This immediately proves the lemma in this case. The general case is similar and the proof is omitted. $\square$

Lemma 42.12.4. Let $(S, \delta )$ be as in Situation 42.7.1. Let $f : X \to Y$ be a proper morphism of schemes which are locally of finite type over $S$.

1. Let $Z \subset X$ be a closed subscheme with $\dim _\delta (Z) \leq k$. Then

$f_*[Z]_ k = [f_*{\mathcal O}_ Z]_ k.$
2. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent sheaf on $X$ such that $\dim _\delta (\text{Supp}(\mathcal{F})) \leq k$. Then

$f_*[\mathcal{F}]_ k = [f_*{\mathcal F}]_ k.$

Note that the statement makes sense since $f_*\mathcal{F}$ and $f_*\mathcal{O}_ Z$ are coherent $\mathcal{O}_ Y$-modules by Cohomology of Schemes, Proposition 30.19.1.

Proof. Part (1) follows from (2) and Lemma 42.10.3. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent sheaf on $X$. Assume that $\dim _\delta (\text{Supp}(\mathcal{F})) \leq k$. By Cohomology of Schemes, Lemma 30.9.7 there exists a closed subscheme $i : Z \to X$ and a coherent $\mathcal{O}_ Z$-module $\mathcal{G}$ such that $i_*\mathcal{G} \cong \mathcal{F}$ and such that the support of $\mathcal{F}$ is $Z$. Let $Z' \subset Y$ be the scheme theoretic image of $f|_ Z : Z \to Y$. Consider the commutative diagram of schemes

$\xymatrix{ Z \ar[r]_ i \ar[d]_{f|_ Z} & X \ar[d]^ f \\ Z' \ar[r]^{i'} & Y }$

We have $f_*\mathcal{F} = f_*i_*\mathcal{G} = i'_*(f|_ Z)_*\mathcal{G}$ by going around the diagram in two ways. Suppose we know the result holds for closed immersions and for $f|_ Z$. Then we see that

$f_*[\mathcal{F}]_ k = f_*i_*[\mathcal{G}]_ k = (i')_*(f|_ Z)_*[\mathcal{G}]_ k = (i')_*[(f|_ Z)_*\mathcal{G}]_ k = [(i')_*(f|_ Z)_*\mathcal{G}]_ k = [f_*\mathcal{F}]_ k$

as desired. The case of a closed immersion is straightforward (omitted). Note that $f|_ Z : Z \to Z'$ is a dominant morphism (see Morphisms, Lemma 29.6.3). Thus we have reduced to the case where $\dim _\delta (X) \leq k$ and $f : X \to Y$ is proper and dominant.

Assume $\dim _\delta (X) \leq k$ and $f : X \to Y$ is proper and dominant. Since $f$ is dominant, for every irreducible component $Z \subset Y$ with generic point $\eta$ there exists a point $\xi \in X$ such that $f(\xi ) = \eta$. Hence $\delta (\eta ) \leq \delta (\xi ) \leq k$. Thus we see that in the expressions

$f_*[\mathcal{F}]_ k = \sum n_ Z[Z], \quad \text{and} \quad [f_*\mathcal{F}]_ k = \sum m_ Z[Z].$

whenever $n_ Z \not= 0$, or $m_ Z \not= 0$ the integral closed subscheme $Z$ is actually an irreducible component of $Y$ of $\delta$-dimension $k$. Pick such an integral closed subscheme $Z \subset Y$ and denote $\eta$ its generic point. Note that for any $\xi \in X$ with $f(\xi ) = \eta$ we have $\delta (\xi ) \geq k$ and hence $\xi$ is a generic point of an irreducible component of $X$ of $\delta$-dimension $k$ as well (see Lemma 42.9.1). Since $f$ is quasi-compact and $X$ is locally Noetherian, there can be only finitely many of these and hence $f^{-1}(\{ \eta \} )$ is finite. By Morphisms, Lemma 29.51.1 there exists an open neighbourhood $\eta \in V \subset Y$ such that $f^{-1}(V) \to V$ is finite. Replacing $Y$ by $V$ and $X$ by $f^{-1}(V)$ we reduce to the case where $Y$ is affine, and $f$ is finite.

Write $Y = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(R)$ and $X = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(A)$ (possible as a finite morphism is affine). Then $R$ and $A$ are Noetherian rings and $A$ is finite over $R$. Moreover $\mathcal{F} = \widetilde{M}$ for some finite $A$-module $M$. Note that $f_*\mathcal{F}$ corresponds to $M$ viewed as an $R$-module. Let $\mathfrak p \subset R$ be the minimal prime corresponding to $\eta \in Y$. The coefficient of $Z$ in $[f_*\mathcal{F}]_ k$ is clearly $\text{length}_{R_{\mathfrak p}}(M_{\mathfrak p})$. Let $\mathfrak q_ i$, $i = 1, \ldots , t$ be the primes of $A$ lying over $\mathfrak p$. Then $A_{\mathfrak p} = \prod A_{\mathfrak q_ i}$ since $A_{\mathfrak p}$ is an Artinian ring being finite over the dimension zero local Noetherian ring $R_{\mathfrak p}$. Clearly the coefficient of $Z$ in $f_*[\mathcal{F}]_ k$ is

$\sum \nolimits _{i = 1, \ldots , t} [\kappa (\mathfrak q_ i) : \kappa (\mathfrak p)] \text{length}_{A_{\mathfrak q_ i}}(M_{\mathfrak q_ i})$

Hence the desired equality follows from Algebra, Lemma 10.52.12. $\square$

Comment #5089 by Klaus Mattis on

In the beginning of the proof of Lemma 02R5, it should probably read W' =f(W) instead of W'=f(Z), and similatily W'' = g(f(W)) instead of W'' = g(f(Z)).

In your comment you can use Markdown and LaTeX style mathematics (enclose it like $\pi$). A preview option is available if you wish to see how it works out (just click on the eye in the toolbar).