Proof. Set $\mathcal{X} = \mathcal{C}\! \mathit{oh}_{X/B}$. We have seen that $\mathcal{X}$ is a stack in groupoids over $(\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ with diagonal representable by algebraic spaces (Lemmas 98.5.4 and 98.5.3). Hence it suffices to find a scheme $W$ and a surjective and smooth morphism $W \to \mathcal{X}$.

Let $B'$ be a scheme and let $B' \to B$ be a surjective étale morphism. Set $X' = B' \times _ B X$ and denote $f' : X' \to B'$ the projection. Then $\mathcal{X}' = \mathcal{C}\! \mathit{oh}_{X'/B'}$ is equal to the $2$-fibre product of $\mathcal{X}$ with the category fibred in sets associated to $B'$ over the category fibred in sets associated to $B$ (Remark 98.5.5). By the material in Algebraic Stacks, Section 93.10 the morphism $\mathcal{X}' \to \mathcal{X}$ is surjective and étale. Hence it suffices to prove the result for $\mathcal{X}'$. In other words, we may assume $B$ is a scheme.

Assume $B$ is a scheme. In this case we may replace $S$ by $B$, see Algebraic Stacks, Section 93.19. Thus we may assume $S = B$.

Assume $S = B$. Choose an affine open covering $S = \bigcup U_ i$. Denote $\mathcal{X}_ i$ the restriction of $\mathcal{X}$ to $(\mathit{Sch}/U_ i)_{fppf}$. If we can find schemes $W_ i$ over $U_ i$ and surjective smooth morphisms $W_ i \to \mathcal{X}_ i$, then we set $W = \coprod W_ i$ and we obtain a surjective smooth morphism $W \to \mathcal{X}$. Thus we may assume $S = B$ is affine.

Assume $S = B$ is affine, say $S = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\Lambda )$. Write $\Lambda = \mathop{\mathrm{colim}}\nolimits \Lambda _ i$ as a filtered colimit with each $\Lambda _ i$ of finite type over $\mathbf{Z}$. For some $i$ we can find a morphism of algebraic spaces $X_ i \to \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\Lambda _ i)$ which is of finite presentation, separated, and flat and whose base change to $\Lambda$ is $X$. See Limits of Spaces, Lemmas 69.7.1, 69.6.9, and 69.6.12. If we show that $\mathcal{C}\! \mathit{oh}_{X_ i/\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\Lambda _ i)}$ is an algebraic stack, then it follows by base change (Remark 98.5.5 and Algebraic Stacks, Section 93.19) that $\mathcal{X}$ is an algebraic stack. Thus we may assume that $\Lambda$ is a finite type $\mathbf{Z}$-algebra.

Assume $S = B = \mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}(\Lambda )$ is affine of finite type over $\mathbf{Z}$. In this case we will verify conditions (1), (2), (3), (4), and (5) of Artin's Axioms, Lemma 97.17.1 to conclude that $\mathcal{X}$ is an algebraic stack. Note that $\Lambda$ is a G-ring, see More on Algebra, Proposition 15.50.12. Hence all local rings of $S$ are G-rings. Thus (5) holds. By Lemma 98.5.11 we have that $\mathcal{X}$ satisfies openness of versality, hence (4) holds. To check (2) we have to verify axioms [-1], , , , and  of Artin's Axioms, Section 97.14. We omit the verification of [-1] and axioms , , ,  correspond respectively to Lemmas 98.5.4, 98.5.6, 98.5.7, 98.5.9. Condition (3) follows from Lemma 98.5.10. Finally, condition (1) is Lemma 98.5.3. This finishes the proof of the theorem. $\square$

 This assumption is not necessary. See Section 98.6.

Comment #4571 by Ariyan Javanpeykar on

Should "algebraicity of stack coherent sheaves" be "algebraicity of the stack of coherent sheaves"?

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